A history of modern psychology Assignment Paper.

A history of modern psychology Assignment Paper.

True / False

 

1. A course in the history of psychology is a typical requirement for only 10% of undergraduate degree programs in psychology.

a. True
b. False

A history of modern psychology Assignment Paper.

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   Why Study the History of Psychology?
QUESTION TYPE:   True / False

 

2. Virtually every modern science includes a course on its history as a part of its curriculum.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   Why Study the History of Psychology?
QUESTION TYPE:   True / False

 

3. The authors of your textbook argue that the formal study of the history of psychology is the most systematic way to integrate the areas and issues that constitute modern psychology.​

a. True
b. False

A history of modern psychology Assignment Paper.

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   Why Study the History of Psychology?
QUESTION TYPE:   True / False
NOTES:   WWW

 

4. Psychology is one of the oldest and one of the newest scholarly disciplines.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   The Development of Modern Psychology
QUESTION TYPE:   True / False

 

5. It can be argued that psychology today studies and debates some of the same questions as those that concerned the philosophers of ancient Greece.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   The Development of Modern Psychology
QUESTION TYPE:   True / False
NOTES:   WWW

 

6. ​The earliest possible starting point for psychology is approximately 1,000 years ago.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   The Development of Modern Psychology
QUESTION TYPE:   True / False

 

7. The distinction between modern psychology and its roots has more to do with the kinds of questions asked than with the methods used.

a. True
b. False

A history of modern psychology Assignment Paper.

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   The Development of Modern Psychology
QUESTION TYPE:   True / False

 

8. ​Reconstruction refers to the principles, methods, and philosophical issues of historical research.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   The Data of History: Reconstructing Psychology’s Past
QUESTION TYPE:   True / False

 

9. The data of history are much like the data of science.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   The Data of History: Reconstructing Psychology’s Past
QUESTION TYPE:   True / False

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10. Although difficult to do, the data of history can be reconstructed or replicated.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   The Data of History: Reconstructing Psychology’s Past
QUESTION TYPE:   True / False

 

11. The papers and diaries of Ebbinghaus and Fechner were found more than 70 years after their deaths.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   The Data of History: Reconstructing Psychology’s Past
QUESTION TYPE:   True / False

 

12. The written record of Darwin’s life and work is now complete.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   The Data of History: Reconstructing Psychology’s Past
QUESTION TYPE:   True / False

 

13. Jung wrote his autobiography

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   The Data of History: Reconstructing Psychology’s Past
QUESTION TYPE:   True / False

 

14. ​The terms id, ego, and superego were improperly translated from German.

a. True
b. False

A history of modern psychology Assignment Paper.

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   The Data of History: Reconstructing Psychology’s Past
QUESTION TYPE:   True / False
NOTES:   WWW

 

15. ​Freud’s original term for free association was Einfall, which means an intrusion or an invasion.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   The Data of History: Reconstructing Psychology’s Past
QUESTION TYPE:   True / False

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16. In his autobiography, Skinner recounts that his graduate days at Harvard were filled with endless work.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   The Data of History: Reconstructing Psychology’s Past
QUESTION TYPE:   True / False

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17. Current evidence demonstrates that Freud’s works were ignored or even renounced by intellectuals during his lifetime.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   Contextual Forces in Psychology
QUESTION TYPE:   True / False

 

18. The term Zeitgeist refers to the spirit of the times.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   Contextual Forces in Psychology
QUESTION TYPE:   True / False

 

19. Three examples of contextual forces in psychology are economic opportunity, war, and prejudice.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   Contextual Forces in Psychology
QUESTION TYPE:   True / False

 

20. By 1960, the prejudice against women entering prestigious graduate schools of psychology had ended.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   Contextual Forces in Psychology
QUESTION TYPE:   True / False

A history of modern psychology Assignment Paper.

21. The first African American to earn a doctoral degree in psychology was Kenneth Clark.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   Contextual Forces in Psychology
QUESTION TYPE:   True / False

 

22. Instances of simultaneous discoveries of theory support the naturalistic concept of scientific history.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   Conceptions of Scientific History
QUESTION TYPE:   True / False
NOTES:   WWW

 

23. The Zeitgeist is most influential in the naturalistic theory of history.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   Conceptions of Scientific History
QUESTION TYPE:   True / False

 

24. The effects of the Zeitgeist in inhibiting or delaying the dissemination and/or acceptance of a discovery operate at a cultural level but also within a science itself.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   Conceptions of Scientific History
QUESTION TYPE:   True / False

 

25. In Kuhn’s (1970) view, psychology is at the paradigm stage because it has several models from which one might choose.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   Schools of Thought in the Evolution of Modern Psychology
QUESTION TYPE:   True / False

 

26. A new school of thought may overcome its opposition not because the opposing points of view become convinced to accept the new thinking, but because adherents of the old school of thought die off.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   Schools of Thought in the Evolution of Modern Psychology
QUESTION TYPE:   True / False
NOTES:   WWW

 

Multiple Choice

 

27. Psychology is unique among the sciences in its requirement that its students ____​

a. ​have a minor in the natural sciences
b. ​learn the experimental method
c. ​use carefully controlled observations in its procedures
d. ​study the history of psychology
e. ​have a liberal arts background in the humanities

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   Why Study the History of Psychology?
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice

 

28. What conclusions can be drawn from the study of the Invisible Gorilla?​

a. ​All psychology students can multitask when presented with multiple stimuli at one time
b. ​Extraordinary events can induce extreme stress when presented to unsuspecting people
c. ​It is difficult for people to pay attention to more than one stimulus at a time
d. ​Doing homework and watching television at the same time are as efficient as if the two are done separately
e. ​Counting can be a difficult task when one is being watched

A history of modern psychology Assignment Paper.

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   The Invisible Gorilla
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
NOTES:   WWW

 

29. Division ____ of the American Psychological Association is concerned with the study of the discipline’s history.​

a. ​1
b. ​2
c. ​26
d. ​32
e. ​42

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   Why Study the History of Psychology?
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice

 

30. ​In what year was the American Psychological Association founded?

a. ​1892
b. ​1932
c. ​1952
d. ​1969
e. ​1979

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   Why Study the History of Psychology?
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice

 

31. Psychology is marked by diversity and divisiveness. The one aspect of the discipline that provides cohesiveness and a common ground for discourse is its ____.​

a. ​reliance on the experimental method in all its research
b. ​focus on the study of overt behavior
c. ​use of the hypothetico-deductive method
d. ​national organizations (APA and APS)
e. ​history

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   Why Study the History of Psychology?
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
NOTES:   WWW

 

32. Perhaps the most valuable outcome of the study of the history of psychology is that one will learn the ____.​

a. ​relationships among psychology’s ideas, theories, and research strategies
b. ​contributions of the classic Greek philosophers
c. ​origins of the experimental methods
d. ​evolution of the scientist-practitioner model of clinical psychology
e. ​issues at the root of the pure versus applied research conflict in psychology

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   Why Study the History of Psychology?
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice

 

33. According to Schultz & Schultz, a course in the history of psychology is useful because ____.​

a. ​it helps us to understand why modern psychology has so many different movements
b. ​it helps to integrate the areas and issues that constitute modern psychology
c. ​it provides a fascinating story on its own
d. ​All of the choices are correct
e. ​None of the choices are correct

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   Why Study the History of Psychology?
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice

 

34. ​As a scientific discipline, psychology is ____.

a. ​one of the newest
b. ​one of the oldest
c. ​the only one to have started in the United States
d. ​one of the newest and one of the oldest
e. ​None of the choices are correct

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   The Development of Modern Psychology
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice

 

35. Greek philosophers studied issues involving ____.​

a. ​motivation
b. ​abnormal behavior
c. ​learning
d. ​thought
e. ​All of the choices are correct

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   The Development of Modern Psychology
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice

 

36. Modern psychology emerged from philosophy approximately ____ years ago.​

a. ​100
b. ​150
c. ​200
d. ​250
e. ​300

A history of modern psychology Assignment Paper.

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   The Development of Modern Psychology
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice

 

37. The feature of modern psychology that distinguishes it from its antecedents is its ____.​

a. ​methodology
b. ​focus on learning
c. ​focus on motivation
d. ​focus on abnormal behavior
e. ​use of deductive logic

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   The Development of Modern Psychology
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice

 

38. Until the last quarter of the 19th century, philosophers studied human nature using which of the following methods?​

a. ​speculation
b. ​intuition
c. ​generalizations
d. ​All of the choices are correct.
e. ​None of the choices are correct.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   The Development of Modern Psychology
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice

 

39. ​Modern psychology shares which of the following characteristics with ancient Greek philosophy?

a. ​An interest in the same kinds of questions about human nature
b. ​The development of common methods of research to answer questions about human nature
c. ​A reliance upon biology to help in the understanding of human nature
d. ​The denial that humans are composed of a physical body and a spiritual soul
e. ​None of the choices are correct

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   The Development of Modern Psychology
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice

 

40. ​The new discipline of psychology was the product of the union of ____.

a. ​philosophy and ethics
b. ​philosophy and physics
c. ​physics and biology
d. ​physics and physiology
e. ​philosophy and physiology

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   Development of Modern Psychology
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice

 

41. The hallmark of psychology’s separation from philosophy was its reliance on ____.​

a. ​physics
b. ​biology
c. ​experimentation
d. ​deduction
e. ​psychophysics

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   The Development of Modern Psychology
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
NOTES:   WWW

 

42. Modern psychology differs from philosophy in which of the following ways?​

a. ​Modern psychology is concerned with the study of mental processes such as learning, memory, and perception. Philosophy is concerned with the study of human nature.
b. ​Modern psychology uses objective methods to study questions. Philosophy depends upon speculation and intuition in order to answer questions.
c. ​Modern psychology studies only the brain. Philosophy studies only the mind.
d. ​Modern psychology is based upon the use of inductive reasoning. Philosophy is based upon the use of deductive reasoning.
e. ​None of the choices are correct.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   The Development of Modern Psychology
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice

 

43. ​Psychology became an independent discipline during the ____.

a. ​Renaissance
b. ​last quarter of the eighteenth century
c. ​last quarter of the nineteenth century
d. ​first decade of the nineteenth century
e. ​first decade of the twentieth century

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   The Development of Modern Psychology
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice

 

44. The term historiography refers to ____.​

a. ​historical biography
b. ​methods used in psychological autopsy
c. ​the techniques, principles, and issues involved in historical research
d. ​the scientific study of history
e. ​the study of the history of psychology

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   The Data of History: Reconstructing Psychology’s Past
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice

 

45. In contrast to the events that are studied in science, historical events cannot be ____.​

a. used to predict future outcomes​
b. ​repeated
c. ​discovered
d. ​analyzed and explained
e. ​understood

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   The Data of History: Reconstructing Psychology’s Past
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice

 

46. The data of history are most accurately depicted or described as ____.​

a. ​public records
b. ​private records
c. ​eyewitness testimony
d. ​recollections
e. ​data fragments

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ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   The Data of History: Reconstructing Psychology’s Past
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice

 

47. The approach of the historian of psychology is similar to the approach taken by ____ in the study of their field.

a. ​physicists
b. ​archaeologists
c. ​chemists
d. ​economists
e. ​None of the choices are correct.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   The Data of History: Reconstructing Psychology’s Past
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice

 

48. Which psychologist burned his/her own letters, manuscripts, and research notes before s/he died?​

a. ​B. F. Skinner
b. ​John Watson
c. ​Karen Horney
d. ​Sigmund Freud
e. ​Margaret Washburn

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   The Data of History: Reconstructing Psychology’s Past
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice

 

49. At least one of Freud’s biographers downplayed the extent of Freud’s cocaine use. This is an example of ____.​

a. ​suppressed data
b. ​data distorted by translation
c. ​lost data
d. ​errors of eyewitnesses
e. ​a misrepresentation intended to protect Freud’s reputation

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   The Data of History: Reconstructing Psychology’s Past
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice

 

50. An “autobiography” of Jung was evidently written not by Jung but by an assistant who ____.​

a. ​slandered him personally
b. ​altered and/or deleted some of Jung’s writings to present him in a manner suiting his family and followers
c. ​exaggerated the degree of the break between Freud and Jung
d. ​expanded Jung’s theories and attributed the expansion to Jung
e. ​None of the choices are correct.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   The Data of History: Reconstructing Psychology’s Past
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
NOTES:   WWW

 

51. ​Important personal papers by ____ have been misplaced for decades or more.

a. ​Ebbinghaus
b. ​Fechner
c. ​Darwin
d. ​All of the choices are correct.
e. ​None of the choices are correct.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   The Data of History: Reconstructing Psychology’s Past
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice

 

52. The historical treatment of Freud’s impact upon psychology is still incomplete because ____.​

a. ​he changed his ideas so many times
b. ​many of his most important works have not been translated into English
c. ​many of his papers and letters will not be publicly available until later in the 21st century
d. ​All of the choices are correct.
e. ​None of the choices are correct.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   The Data of History: Reconstructing Psychology’s Past
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice

 

53. The terms ego and id, which do not precisely represent Freud’s ideas, are examples of ____.​

a. ​suppressed data
b. ​data distorted by translation
c. ​eyewitness errors
d. ​lost data
e. ​distortions intended to protect Freud’s reputation

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   The Data of History: Reconstructing Psychology’s Past
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice

 

54. Freud’s idea “Einfall” was translated to English into the term ____ which means something other than what Freud implied in the original German.​ A history of modern psychology Assignment Paper.

a. ​rationalization
b. ​free association
c. ​penis envy
d. ​dream analysis
e. ​fixation

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   The Data of History: Reconstructing Psychology’s Past
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
NOTES:   WWW

 

55. Skinner’s self-discipline as a student and Freud’s being ignored and rejected early in his career indicated that ____.​

a. ​biographers disregard the real events in favor of fantasy
b. ​data of history are true in their original versions
c. ​participants may themselves produce biased accounts
d. ​translations errors account for most misinterpretations
e. ​All of the choices are correct

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   The Data of History: Reconstructing Psychology’s Past
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice

A history of modern psychology Assignment Paper.

56. ​To guard against self-serving data and to assess the truth of a person’s recollections and reports of events in the history of psychology, the historian should, whenever possible, ____.​

a. ​collect data from other observers
b. ​learn the language in which the person wrote
c. ​read newspaper accounts of the events
d. ​read others’ research publications of that era
e. ​reconstruct the event

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   The Data of History: Reconstructing Psychology’s Past
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice

 

57. Regardless of how objective a science and its practitioners are alleged to be, that science will be influenced by the ____.​

a. ​scientists’ political beliefs
b. ​scientists’ religious beliefs
c. ​policies of the government that funds that science’s research
d. ​contextual forces of the time
e. ​amount of funding it receives

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   Contextual Forces in Psychology
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice

 

58. The term “Zeitgeist” refers to ____.​

a. ​the intellectual and cultural climate of the times
b. ​a German dessert
c. ​the moment of discovery
d. ​the moment of change in scientific revolutions
e. ​a blizzard of activity

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   Contextual Forces in Psychology
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice

 

59. The contextual forces in psychology deal with the ____.​

a. ​paradigms that exist in modern psychology.
b. ​social, economic, and political factors that influenced the field.
c. ​great individuals who have developed psychology.
d. ​attempt of psychology to separate itself from other disciplines such as physiology.
e. ​None of the choices are correct.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   Contextual Forces in Psychology
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice

 

60. The three contextual forces in the history of psychology were ____.​

a. ​economic opportunities, wars, and discrimination
b. ​famine, pestilence, and death
c. ​theory, research, and application
d. ​cognition, motivation, and effect
e. social, political, and economic​

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   Contextual Forces in Psychology
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice

 

61. A surge in the practice of applied psychology occurred in response to the lack of jobs in academic settings for PhDs. Thus, the development of applied psychology was a direct consequence of the ____.​

a. ​great number of psychologists Wundt trained
b. ​political context of Europe
c. ​economic context of the United States
d. ​fact that the first generation of American psychologists learned all their courses in German and thus could not practice Wundt’s psychology
e. ​political context of the United States

A history of modern psychology Assignment Paper.

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   Contextual Forces in Psychology
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice

 

62. A wave of employment possibilities in applied psychology in the first two decades of the 20th century was partly due to ____.​

a. ​700% increases in public school enrollment
b. ​more money being spent on defense than on education
c. ​the rise of the Veteran’s administration Hospital system
d. ​less money being spent on education than on defense and welfare combined
e. ​All of the choices are correct

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   Contextual Forces in Psychology
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice

 

63. Which contextual influence on psychology lead to the growth of psychology in the areas of personnel selection, psychological testing, and engineering psychology?​

a. ​Demands generated by the world wars
b. ​Emigration from Germany of the top psychologists when Hitler took power
c. ​Prosperity of the 1920s and 1930s in the United States
d. ​Psychological needs of combat pilots
e. ​Need to provide education for an unexpected surge in the U.S. population

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   Contextual Forces in Psychology
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice

 

64. On the basis of the destruction associated with World War I, Freud proposed that ____.​ A history of modern psychology Assignment Paper.

a. ​humans have the ability to survive any catastrophe
b. ​the defense mechanisms are used by humans to distort reality
c. ​humans have an instinct for aggression
d. ​the id is stronger than the ego in controlling behavior
e. ​None of the choices are correct

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   Contextual Forces in Psychology
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice

 

65. According to the textbook, psychology as a discipline has ____.​

a. ​engaged in the discriminatory practices that mark American culture as a whole
b. ​been substantially more discriminatory against women than have other sciences
c. ​been substantially more discriminatory against minorities than have other sciences
d. ​focused on the reduction of discrimination since its beginnings
e. ​None of the choices are correct

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   Contextual Forces in Psychology
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice

 

66. Even when some women were admitted to graduate programs in psychology, they still encountered many barriers to their success, such as ____.​

a. ​being barred from some laboratory facilities
b. ​being prevented from using graduate library facilities
c. ​being unable to eat in graduate cafeterias
d. ​not being allowed to participate in some seminar topics
e. ​All of the choices are correct

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   Contextual Forces in Psychology
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
NOTES:   WWW

A history of modern psychology Assignment Paper.

67. As recently as the 1960s, why were some universities reluctant to admit women to their graduate programs in psychology?​

a. ​Their graduate admission scores were not as high as those of male applicants.
b. ​Their personal lives, in terms of marriage and becoming pregnant, were viewed as obstacles that reduced the likelihood of completion of graduate school.
c. ​In the opinion of some influential psychologists, some women would never amount to anything.
d. ​There were too many female applicants.
e. ​Their personal lives, in terms of marriage and becoming pregnant, were viewed as obstacles that reduced the likelihood of completion of graduate school and, in the opinion of some influential psychologists, some women would never amount to anything.

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   Contextual Forces in Psychology
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice

 

68. Julian Rotter, a leading personality theorist was told that “____ simply could not get academic jobs, regardless of their credentials.”​

a. ​African-Americans
b. ​women
c. ​graduates above the age of 50
d. ​Jews
e. ​All of the choices are correct.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   Contextual Forces in Psychology
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice

 

69. According to your text, it was so difficult for Jewish psychologists to get a job that some resorted to ____.​

a. ​only applying to traditionally Jewish colleges and universities
b. ​changing their religion
c. ​lying about their religion
d. ​changing their name to something that didn’t seem Jewish
e. ​changing their name to something that didn’t seem Jewish

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   Contextual Forces in Psychology
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice

 

70. When ____ enrolled as a graduate student at Clark University, the administration arranged a separate dining table for her/him.​ A history of modern psychology Assignment Paper.

a. ​Francis Sumner
b. ​Margaret Floy Washburn
c. ​Kenneth Clark
d. ​Mamie Clark
e. ​Maslow

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   Contextual Forces in Psychology
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice

 

71. Kenneth Clark was rejected by the graduate program in psychology at Cornell because the university ____.​

a. ​could not tolerate Blacks working closely with Whites
b. ​had no dormitory facilities for Blacks
c. ​had no dining facilities for Blacks
d. ​could not have Black males working with White female graduate students
e. ​would not confer the PhD on a Black person even if he or she completed the requisite coursework

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   Contextual Forces in Psychology
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice

 

72. The first African American president of the APA was ____.​

a. ​Frances Cecil Sumner
b. ​Charles Henry Turner
c. ​Kenneth Clark
d. ​Mamie Phipps Clark
e. ​None of the choices are correct

A history of modern psychology Assignment Paper.

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   Contextual Forces in Psychology
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
NOTES:   WWW

 

73. Who conducted a research program on racial identity and self-concept issues for Black children that was cited in the 1954 Supreme Court decision to end racial segregation in public schools?​

a. ​Francis Sumner
b. ​James Bayton
c. ​Inez Prosser
d. ​Kenneth and Mamie Clark
e. ​none of the choices are correct

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   Contextual Forces in Psychology
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice

 

74. History ignores the work of the majority of ____.​

a. ​women
b. ​African-Americans
c. ​Jews
d. ​white me
e. ​all psychologists

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   Contextual Forces in Psychology
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice

 

75. The _____ theory would support the claim: “Freud was instrumental in discovering psychoanalysis. If not for Freud, no other psychologist would have been able to undercover the human psyche.”​

a. ​Zeitgeist
b. ​personalistic
c. ​naturalistic
d. ​ortgeist
e. ​evolution

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   Conceptions of Scientific History
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
NOTES:   WWW

 

76. “The man makes the times,” reflects which view of history?​

a. ​panpsychic
b. ​personalistic
c. ​naturalistic
d. ​nativist
e. ​regressive

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   Conceptions of Scientific History
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice

 

77. Which theory suggests that “the times make the person”?​

a. ​naturalistic
b. ​personalistic
c. ​nativist
d. ​particularistic
e. ​panpsychic

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   Conceptions of Scientific History
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice

 

78. ​Simultaneous discovery favors which view of history?

a. dynamic​
b. ​personalistic
c. ​naturalistic
d. ​recurrent
e. ​syncopated

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   Conceptions of Scientific History
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice

A history of modern psychology Assignment Paper.

79. Darwin and Wallace developed similar theories of evolution independently; Newton and Leibnitz developed the calculus independently; Twitmyer discovered “Pavlovian” conditioning before Pavlov did. Such independent discoveries are attributed to which theory?

a. ​syncopated
b. ​personalistic
c. ​naturalistic
d. ​Ortgeist
e. ​evolution

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   Conceptions of Scientific History
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice

 

80. ​In the 1970s, the publication of the research of John Garcia was significantly delayed because ____.

a. ​his work challenged the cognitive psychology school of thought
b. ​his work was regarded as poorly done
c. ​his findings challenged the prevailing view in stimulus-response (S-R) learning theory
d. ​journal editors tend to accept findings that contradict or oppose current thinking
e. ​All of the choices are correct

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   Conceptions of Scientific History
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
NOTES:   WWW

 

81. The editors and editorial boards of journals in psychology are composed of people eminent in their specialty areas and likely to subscribe to tradition and their own viewpoints. Thus, new knowledge may not be published if it is revolutionary. This situation illustrates which theory?​

a. ​Zeitgeist
b. ​personalistic
c. ​naturalistic
d. ​Ortgeist
e. ​evolution

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   Conceptions of Scientific History
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice

 

82. ​In the first years of psychology’s emergence as a new discipline, which man determined its direction?

a. ​James McKeen Cattell
b. ​Edward Bradford Titchener
c. ​The Unknown Soldier
d. ​Wilhelm Wundt
e. ​Thomas Kuhn

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   Schools of Thought in the Evolution of Modern Psychology
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice

 

83. A school of thought emerges whenever ____.​

a. a group shares a theoretical orientation and investigates similar problems​
b. ​some person organizes and markets several compatible themes or practices, as did Wundt and Watson
c. ​a group at a particular college or university focuses on a particular problem, such as the “Würzburg school”
d. ​a college or university adopts a particular orientation, such as behaviorism at Harvard or the “Chicago school” of functionalism
e. ​a college or university adopts a single methodology, such as the experimental psychology program at the University of Illinois

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   Schools of Thought in the Evolution of Modern Psychology
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice

 

84. ​The stage in the development of a science when it is still divided into schools of thought is called ____. A history of modern psychology Assignment Paper.

a. ​paradigmatic
b. ​preparadigmatic
c. ​revolutionary
d. ​a scientific revolution
e. ​messy

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   Schools of Thought in the Evolution of Modern Psychology
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice

 

85. Which eminent historian called the process of replacing one paradigm with another a scientific revolution?​

a. ​E.G. Boring
b. ​Gordon Allport
c. ​Duane Schultz
d. ​Thomas Kuhn
e. ​John Garcia

A history of modern psychology Assignment Paper.

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   Schools of Thought in the Evolution of Modern Psychology
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice

 

86. Kuhn (1970) defines a paradigm as ____.​

a. ​an instance of agreement on theory and methodology by the science’s practitioners.
b. ​a model that describes a scientific phenomenon.
c. ​a model that explains a scientific phenomenon.
d. ​the reconciliation of disparate views on the proper subject matter of the field.
e. ​the ultimate goal of any science but which is an ideal and will never be realized.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   Schools of Thought in the Evolution of Modern Psychology
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice

 

87. In Kuhn’s philosophy of science, when Einstein’s theory of relativity replaced Galilean-Newtonian physics, a(n) ____ occurred.​ A history of modern psychology Assignment Paper.

a. ​Zeitgeist
b. ​Ortgeist
c. ​paradigm
d. ​scientific revolution
e. ​school of thought

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   Schools of Thought in the Evolution of Modern Psychology
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice
NOTES:   WWW

 

88. Currently, psychology ____.​

a. ​has reached the paradigmatic stage
b. ​has been described as a sequence of failed paradigms
c. ​may be more fragmented than at any time in its history
d. ​has been described as a sequence of failed paradigms and may be more fragmented than at any time in its history
e. ​None of the choices are correct

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   Schools of Thought in the Evolution of Modern Psychology
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice

 

89. The various schools of thought in psychology have served well as systems to be opposed. In each case, ____ was the consequence.​

a. ​a new paradigm
b. ​a new school of thought
c. ​absorption into the mainstream
d. ​a new and unique methodology
e. ​a new definition of “mind”

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   Schools of Thought in the Evolution of Modern Psychology
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice

 

90. The school of thought that deals with conscious experience as it is dependent on the experiencing person is the ____ school.​

a. ​structuralist
b. ​functionalist
c. ​Gestalt
d. ​humanistic
e. ​cognitive

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   Plan of the Book
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice

 

91. The school of thought that deals with how the conscious mind enables and facilitates one’s adaptation to one’s environment is the ____ school.​

a. ​structuralist
b. ​functionalist
c. ​Gestalt
d. ​humanistic
e. ​cognitive

A history of modern psychology Assignment Paper.

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   Plan of the Book
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice

 

92. ​The school of thought that focuses on the processes of knowing and thus represents a return to the study of conscious processes is the ____ school.

a. ​structuralist
b. ​functionalist
c. ​Gestalt
d. ​cognitive
e. ​humanistic

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   Plan of the Book
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice

 

93. The school of thought that is distinct in its focus on the role of the unconscious in determining behavior is the ____ school.​

a. ​functionalist
b. ​psychoanalytic
c. ​behaviorist
d. ​Gestalt
e. ​cognitive

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   Plan of the Book
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice

 

94. The school of thought that focuses on learning and perception and emphasizes the combination of elements to produce new patterns is the ____ school.​

a. ​structuralist
b. ​behaviorist
c. ​Gestalt
d. ​cognitive
e. ​Würzburg

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   Plan of the Book
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice

 

95. The school of thought that deals solely with observable behaviors that can be described in objective terms is the ____ school.​

a. ​structuralist
b. ​behaviorist
c. ​Gestalt
d. ​cognitive
e. ​humanistic

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   Plan of the Book
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice

 

96. The school of thought that emphasizes the study of conscious experience and the wholeness of human nature is the ____ school.​

a. ​structuralist
b. ​behaviorist
c. ​Gestalt
d. ​cognitive
e. ​humanistic

A history of modern psychology Assignment Paper.

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   Plan of the Book
QUESTION TYPE:   Multiple Choice

 

Essay

 

97. Why is it important for psychology students to study the development of psychology?

ANSWER:   Answer not provided.​
QUESTION TYPE:   Essay

A history of modern psychology Assignment Paper.

 

98. Argue that Psychology’s roots began 2000 years ago. Now argue that they began 200 years ago. What fields came together to form Psychology?​

ANSWER:   Answer not provided.​
QUESTION TYPE:   Essay
NOTES:   WWW

 

99. ​Define historiography. How do the data of history differ from the data of science? Name and describe the three major difficulties involved in recalling and presenting the data of history.

ANSWER:   Answer not provided​
QUESTION TYPE:   Essay

 

100. ​Discuss and give one example of each of the contextual forces that influenced the development of psychology.

ANSWER:   Answer not provided.​
QUESTION TYPE:   Essay

 

101. Describe, compare, and contrast the personalistic and naturalistic theories as conceptions of scientific history. How could the contributions of Darwin be used to illustrate both?

ANSWER:   Answer not provided.​
QUESTION TYPE:   Essay
NOTES:   WWW

 

102. ​Define “school of thought” and discuss it in terms of Thomas Kuhn’s concept of paradigms in scientific evolution.

ANSWER:   Answer not provided.​
QUESTION TYPE:   Essay

A history of modern psychology Assignment Paper.