CLOUDS Critical Summary Assignment

CLOUDS Critical Summary Assignment

Critical Summary one page paper, 1/2 summary and 1/2 personal reflection. You should summarize a part of the author\'s argument, and then comment and reflect on that argument. If a particular reading contains multiple arguments, you may focus on just one argument.

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The Clouds
By Aristophanes
Commentary: Many comments have been posted about The Clouds.
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The Clouds
By Aristophanes
Written 419 B.C.E
Dramatis Personae
STREPSIADES
PHIDIPPIDES
SERVANT OF STREPSIADES
DISCIPLES OF SOCRATES
SOCRATES
JUST DISCOURSE
UNJUST DISCOURSE
PASIAS, a Money-lender
AMYNIAS, another Money-lender
CHORUS OF CLOUDS
Scene
In the background are two houses, that of Strepsiades and that of Socrates, the Thoughtery. The
latter is small and dingy; the in, terior of the former is shown and two beds are seen, each
occupied.CLOUDS Critical Summary Assignment
STREPSIADES sitting up
Great gods! will these nights never end? will daylight never come? I heard the cock
crow long ago and my slaves are snoring still! Ah! Ah! It wasn't like this formerly.
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Curses on the war! has it not done me ills enough? Now I may not even chastise my
own slaves. Again there's this brave lad, who never wakes the whole long night, but,
wrapped in his five coverlets, farts away to his heart's content.
He lies down

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Come! let me nestle in well and snore too, if it be possible....oh! misery, it's vain to
think of sleep with all these expenses, this stable, these debts, which are devouring
me, thanks to this fine cavalier, who only knows how to look after his long locks, to
show himself off in his chariot and to dream of horses! And I, I am nearly dead,
when I see the moon bringing the third decade in her train and my liability falling
due....Slave! light the lamp and bring me my tablets.CLOUDS Critical Summary Assignment
The slave obeys.
Who are all my creditors? Let me see and reckon up the interest. What is it I
owe?....Twelve minae to Pasias....What! twelve minae to Pasias?....Why did I borrow
these? Ah! I know! It was to buy that thoroughbred, which cost me so much. How I
should have prized the stone that had blinded him!
PHIDIPPIDES in his sleep
That's not fair, Philo! Drive your chariot straight, I say.
STREPSIADES
This is what is destroying me. He raves about horses, even in his sleep.
PHIDIPPIDES still sleeping
How many times round the track is the race for the chariots of war?
STREPSIADES
It's your own father you are driving to death....to ruin. Come! what debt comes next,
after that of Pasias?....Three minae to Amynias for a chariot and its two wheels.
PHIDIPPIDES still asleep
Give the horse a good roll in the dust and lead him home.
STREPSIADES
Ah! wretched boy! it's my money that you are making roll. My creditors have
distrained on my goods, and here are others again, who demand security for their
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interest.
PHIDIPPIDES awaking
What is the matter with you, father, that you groan and turn about the whole night
through?
STREPSIADES
I have a bum-bailiff in the bedclothes biting me.
PHIDIPPIDES
For pity's sake, let me have a little sleep.
He turns over.
STREPSIADES
Very well, sleep on! but remember that all these debts will fall back on your
shoulders. Oh! curses on the go-between who made me marry your mother! I lived
so happily in the country, a commonplace, everyday life, but a good and easy onehad
not a trouble, not a care, was rich in bees, in sheep and in olives. Then indeed I
had to marry the niece of Megacles, the son of Megacles; I belonged to the country,
she was from the town; she was a haughty, extravagant woman, a true Coesyra. On
the nuptial day, when I lay beside her, I was reeking of the dregs of the wine-cup, of
cheese and of wool; she was redolent with essences, saffron, voluptuous kisses, the
love of spending, of good cheer and of wanton delights. I will not say she did
nothing; no, she worked hard...to ruin me, and pretending all the while merely to be
showing her the cloak she had woven for me, I said, "Wife you go too fast about your
work, your threads are too closely woven and you use far too much wool."
A slave enters witk a lamp.
SLAVECLOUDS Critical Summary Assignment
There is no more oil in the lamp.
STREPSIADES
Why then did you light such a thirsty lamp? Come here, I am going to beat you.
SLAVE
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What for?
STREPSIADES
Because you have put in too thick a wick....Later, when we had this boy, what was to
be his name? It was the cause of much quarrelling with my loving wife. She insisted
on having some reference to a horse in his name, that he should be called
Xanthippus, Charippus or Callippides. I wanted to name him Phidonides after his
grandfather. We disputed long, and finally agreed to style him Phidippides....She
used to fondle and coax him, saying, "Oh! what a joy it will be to me when you have
grown up, to see you, like my father, Megacles, clothed in purple and standing up
straight in your chariot driving your steeds toward the town." And I would say to
him, "When, like your father, you will go, dressed in a skin, to fetch back your goats
from Phelleus." Alas! he never listened to me and his madness for horses has
shattered my fortune.
He gets out of bed.
But by dint of thinking the livelong night, I have discovered a road to salvation, both
miraculous and divine. If he will but follow it, I shall be out of my trouble! First,
however, he must be awakened, but it must be done as gently as possible. How shall
I manage it? Phidippides! my little Phidippides!
PHIDIPPIDES awaking again
What is it, father?
STREPSIADES
Kiss me and give me your hand.
PHIDIPPIDES getting up and doing as his father requests
There! What's it all about?
STREPSIADES
Tell me! do you love me?
PHIDIPPIDES
By Posidon, the equestrian Posidon! yes, I swear I do.
STREPSIADES
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Oh, do not, I pray you, invoke this god of horses; he is the one who is the cause of all
my cares. But if you really love me, and with your whole heart, my boy, believe me.
PHIDIPPIDES
Believe you? about what?
STREPSIADES
Alter your habits forthwith and go and learn what I tell you.
PHIDIPPIDES
Say on, what are your orders?
STREPSIADES
Will you obey me ever so little?
PHIDIPPIDES
By Bacchus, I will obey you.
STREPSIADES
Very well then! Look this way. Do you see that little door and that little house?
PHIDIPPIDES
Yes, father. But what are you driving at?
STREPSIADES
That is the Thoughtery of wise souls. There they prove that we are coals enclosed on
all sides under a vast snuffer, which is the sky. If well paid, these men also teach one
how to gain law-suits, whether they be just or not.
PHIDIPPIDES
What do they call themselves?
STREPSIADES
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I do not know exactly, but they are deep thinkers and most admirable people.
PHIDIPPIDES
Bah! the wretches! I know them; you mean those quacks with pale faces, those
barefoot fellows, such as that miserable Socrates and Chaerephon?
STREPSIADES
Silence! say nothing foolish! If you desire your father not to die of hunger, join their
company and let your horses go.
PHIDIPPIDES
No, by Bacchus! even though you gave me the pheasants that Leogoras raises.
STREPSIADES
Oh! my beloved son, I beseech you, go and follow their teachings.
PHIDIPPIDES
And what is it I should learn?
STREPSIADES
It seems they have two courses of reasoning, the true and the false, and that, thanks
to the false, the worst law-suits can be gained. If then you learn this science, which is
false, I shall not have to pay an obolus of all the debts I have contracted on your
account.
PHIDIPPIDES
No, I will not do it. I should no longer dare to look at our gallant horsemen, when I
had so ruined my tan.
STREPSIADES
Well then, by Demeter! I will no longer support you, neither you, nor your team, nor
your saddle-horse. Go and hang yourself, I turn you out of house and home.
PHIDIPPIDES
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My uncle Megacles will not leave me without horses; I shall go to him and laugh at
your anger.
He departs. STREPSIADES goes over to SOCRATES' house.
STREPSIADES
One rebuff shall not dishearten me. With the help of the gods I will enter the
Thoughtery and learn myself.
He hesitates.
But at my age, memory has gone and the mind is slow to grasp things. How can all
these fine distinctions, these subtleties be learned?
Making up his mind
Bah! why should I dally thus instead of rapping at the door? Slave, slave!
He knocks and calls.
A DISCIPLE from within
A plague on you! Who are you?
STREPSIADES
Strepsiades, the son of Phido, of the deme of Cicynna.
DISCIPLE coming out of the door
You are nothing but an ignorant and illiterate fellow to let fly at the door with such
kicks. You have brought on a miscarriage-of an idea!
STREPSIADES
Pardon me, please; for I live far away from here in the country. But tell me, what was
the idea that miscarried?
DISCIPLE
I may not tell it to any but a disciple.
STREPSIADES
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Then tell me without fear, for I have come to study among you.
DISCIPLE
Very well then, but reflect, that these are mysteries. Lately, a flea bit Chaerephon on
the brow and then from there sprang on to the head of Socrates. Socrates asked
Chaerephon, "How many times the length of its legs does a flea jump?"
STREPSIADES
And how ever did he go about measuring it?
DISCIPLE
Oh! it was most ingenious! He melted some wax, seized the flea and dipped its two
feet in the wax, which, when cooled, left them shod with true Persian slippers. These
he took off and with them measured the distance.
STREPSIADES
Ah! great Zeus! what a brain! what subtlety!
DISCIPLE
I wonder what then would you say, if you knew another of Socrates' contrivances?
STREPSIADES
What is it? Pray tell me.
DISCIPLE
Chaerephon of the deme of Sphettia asked him whether he thought a gnat buzzed
through its proboscis or through its anus.
STREPSIADES
And what did he say about the gnat?
DISCIPLE
He said that the gut of the gnat was narrow, and that, in passing through this tiny
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passage, the air is driven with force towards the breech; then after this slender
channel, it encountered the rump, which was distended like a trumpet, and there it
resounded sonorously.CLOUDS Critical Summary Assignment
STREPSIADES
So the arse of a gnat is a trumpet. Oh! what a splendid arsevation! Thrice happy
Socrates! It would not be difficult to succeed in a law-suit, knowing so much about a
gnat's guts!
DISCIPLE
Not long ago a lizard caused him the loss of a sublime thought.
STREPSIADES
In what way, please?
DISCIPLE
One night, when he was studying the course of the moon and its revolutions and was
gazing open-mouthed at the heavens, a lizard crapped upon him from the top of the
roof.
STREPSIADES
A lizard crapping on Socrates! That's rich!
DISCIPLE
Last night we had nothing to eat.
STREPSIADES
Well, what did he contrive, to secure you some supper?
DISCIPLE
He spread over the table a light layer of cinders, bending an iron rod the while; then
he took up a pair of compasses and at the same moment unhooked a piece of the
victim which was hanging in the palaestra.
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STREPSIADES
And we still dare to admire Thales! Open, open this home of knowledge to me
quickly! Haste, haste to show me Socrates; I long to become his disciple. But do
please open the door.
The door opens, revealing the interior of the Thoughtery, in which the DISCIPLES OF
SOCRATES are seen in various postures of meditation and study; they are pale and emaciated
creatures.
Ah! by Heracles! what country are those animals from?
DISCIPLE
Why, what are you astonished at? What do you think they resemble?
STREPSIADES
The captives of Pylos. But why do they look so fixedly on the ground?
DISCIPLE
They are seeking for what is below the ground.
STREPSIADES
Ah! they're looking for onions. Do not give yourselves so much trouble; I know
where there are some, fine big ones. But what are those fellows doing, bent all
double?
DISCIPLE
They are sounding the abysses of Tartarus.
STREPSIADES
And what are their arses looking at in the heavens?
DISCIPLE
They are studying astronomy on their own account. But come in so that the master
may not find us here.
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STREPSIADES
Not yet; not yet; let them not change their position. I want to tell them my own little
matter.
DISCIPLE
But they may not stay too long in the open air and away from school.
STREPSIADES pointing to a celestial globe
In the name of all the gods, what is that? Tell me.
DISCIPLE
That is astronomy.
STREPSIADES pointing to a map
And that?
DISCIPLE
Geometry.
STREPSIADES
What is that used for?
DISCIPLE
To measure the land.
STREPSIADES
But that is apportioned by lot.
DISCIPLE
No, no, I mean the entire earth.
STREPSIADES
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Ah! what a funny thing! How generally useful indeed is this invention!
DISCIPLE
There is the whole surface of the earth. Look! Here is Athens.
STREPSIADES
Athens! you are mistaken; I see no courts in session.
DISCIPLE
Nevertheless it is really and truly the Attic territory.
STREPSIADES
And where are my neighbours of Cicynna?
DISCIPLE
They live here. This is Euboea; you see this island, that is so long and narrow.
STREPSIADES
I know. Because we and Pericles have stretched it by dint of squeezing it. And where
is Lacedaemon?
DISCIPLE
Lacedaemon? Why, here it is, look.
STREPSIADES
How near it is to us! Think it well over, it must be removed to a greater distance.
DISCIPLE
But, by Zeus, that is not possible.
STREPSIADES
Then, woe to you! and who is this man suspended up in a basket?
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DISCIPLE
That's himself.
STREPSIADES
Who's himself?
DISCIPLE
Socrates.
STREPSIADES
Socrates! Oh! I pray you, call him right loudly for me.
DISCIPLE
Call him yourself; I have no time to waste.
He departs. The machine swings in SOCRATES in a basket.
STREPSIADES
Socrates! my little Socrates!
SOCRATES loftily
Mortal, what do you want with me?
STREPSIADES
First, what are you doing up there? Tell me, I beseech you.
SOCRATES POMPOUSLY
I am traversing the air and contemplating the sun.
STREPSIADES
Thus it's not on the solid ground, but from the height of this basket, that you slight
the gods, if indeed....
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SOCRATES
I have to suspend my brain and mingle the subtle essence of my mind with this air,
which is of the like nature, in order clearly to penetrate the things of heaven. I should
have discovered nothing, had I remained on the ground to consider from below the
things that are above; for the earth by its force attracts the sap of the mind to itself.
It's just the same with the watercress.
STREPSIADES
What? Does the mind attract the sap of the watercress? Ah! my dear little Socrates,
come down to me! I have come to ask you for lessons.
SOCRATES descending
And for what lessons?
STREPSIADES
I want to learn how to speak. I have borrowed money, and my merciles creditors do
not leave me a moment's peace; all my goods are at stake.
SOCRATES
And how was it you did not see that you were getting so much into debt?
STREPSIADES
My ruin has been the madness for horses, a most rapacious evil; but teach me one of
your two methods of reasoning, the one whose object is not to repay anything, and,
may the gods bear witness, that I am ready to pay any fee you may name.
SOCRATES
By which gods will you swear? To begin with, the gods are not a coin current with
us.
STREPSIADES
But what do you swear by then? By the iron money of Byzantium?
SOCRATES
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Do you really wish to know the truth of celestial matters?
STREPSIADES
Why, yes, if it's possible.
SOCRATES
....and to converse with the clouds, who are our genii?
STREPSIADES
Without a doubt.
SOCRATES
Then be seated on this sacred couch.
STREPSIADES sitting down
I am seated.
SOCRATES
Now take this chaplet.
STREPSIADES
Why a chaplet? Alas! Socrates, would you sacrifice me, like Athamas?
SOCRATES
No, these are the rites of initiation.
STREPSIADES
And what is it I am to gain?
SOCRATES
You will become a thorough rattle-pate, a hardened old stager, the fine flour of the
talkers....But come, keep quiet.
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STREPSIADES
By Zeus! That's no lie! Soon I shall be nothing but wheat-flour, if you powder me in
that fashion.
SOCRATES
Silence, old man, give heed to the prayers.
In an hierophantic tone
Oh! most mighty king, the boundless air, that keepest the earth suspended in space,
thou bright Aether and ye venerable goddesses, the Clouds, who carry in your loins
the thunder and the lightning, arise, ye sovereign powers and manifest yourselves in
the celestial spheres to the eyes of your sage.
STREPSIADES
Not yet! Wait a bit, till I fold my mantle double, so as not to get wet. And to think
that I did not even bring my travelling cap! What a misfortune!
SOCRATES ignoring this
Come, oh! Clouds, whom I adore, come and show yourselves to this man, whether
you be resting on the sacred summits of Olympus, crowned with hoar-frost, or
tarrying in the gardens of Ocean, your father, forming sacred choruses with the
Nymphs; whether you be gathering the waves of the Nile in golden vases or dwelling
in the Maeotic marsh or on the snowy rocks of Mimas, hearken to my prayer and
accept my offering. May these sacrifices be pleasing to you.
Amidst rumblings of thunder the CHORUS OF CLOUDS appears.
CHORUS singing
Eternal Clouds, let us appear; let us arise from the roaring depths of Ocean, our
father; let us fly towards the lofty mountains, spread our damp wings over their
forest-laden summits, whence we will dominate the distant valleys, the harvest fed
by the sacred earth, the murmur of the divine streams and the resounding waves of
the sea, which the unwearying orb lights up with its glittering beams. But let us
shake off the rainy fogs, which hide our immortal beauty and sweep the earth from
afar with our gaze.
SOCRATES
Oh, venerated goddesses, yes, you are answering my call!
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To STREPSIADES.
Did you hear their voices mingling with the awful growling of the thunder?
STREPSIADES
Oh! adorable Clouds, I revere you and I too am going to let off my thunder, so
greatly has your own affrighted me.
He farts.
Faith! whether permitted or not, I must, I must crap!
SOCRATES
No scoffing; do not copy those damned comic poets. Come, silence! a numerous host
of goddesses approaches with songs.
CHORUS singing
Virgins, who pour forth the rains, let us move toward Attica, the rich country of
Pallas, the home of the brave; let us visit the dear land of Cecrops, where the secret
rites are celebrated, where the mysterious sanctuary flies open to the initiate.... What
victims are offered there to the deities of heaven! What glorious temples! What
statues! What holy prayers to the rulers of Olympus! At every season nothing but
sacred festivals, garlanded victims, is to be seen. Then Spring brings round again the
joyous feasts of Dionysus, the harmonious contests of the choruses and the serious
melodies of the flute.
STREPSIADES
By Zeus! Tell me, Socrates, I pray you, who are these women, whose language is so
solemn; can they be demi-goddesses?
SOCRATES
Not at all. They are the Clouds of heaven, great goddesses for the lazy; to them we
owe all, thoughts, speeches, trickery, roguery, boasting, lies, sagacity.
STREPSIADES
Ah! that was why, as I listened to them, my mind spread out its wings; it burns to
babble about trifles, to maintain worthless arguments, to voice its petty reasons, to
contradict, to tease some opponent. But are they not going to show themselves? I
should like to see them, were it possible.
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SOCRATES
Well, look this way in the direction of Parnes; I already see those who are slowly
descending.
STREPSIADES
But where, where? Show them to me.
SOCRATES
They are advancing in a throng, following an oblique path across the dales and
thickets.
STREPSIADES
Strange! I can see nothing.
SOCRATES
There, close to the entrance.
STREPSIADES
Hardly, if at all, can I distinguish them.
SOCRATES
You must see them clearly now, unless your eyes are filled with gum as thick as
pumpkins.
STREPSIADES
Aye, undoubtedly! Oh! the venerable goddesses! Why, they fill up the entire stage.
SOCRATES
And you did not know, you never suspected, that they were goddesses?
STREPSIADES
No, indeed; I thought the Clouds were only fog, dew and vapour.
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SOCRATES
But what you certainly do not know is that they are the support of a crowd of quacks,
the diviners, who were sent to Thurium, the notorious physicians, the well-combed
fops, who load their fingers with rings down to the nails, and the braggarts, who
write dithyrambic verses, all these are idlers whom the Clouds provide a living for,
because they sing them in their verses.
STREPSIADES
It is then for this that they praise "the rapid flight of the moist clouds, which veil the
brightness of day" and "the waving locks of the hundred-headed Typho" and "the
impetuous tempests, which float through the heavens, like birds of prey with aerial
wings loaded with mists" and "the rains, the dew, which the clouds outpour." As a
reward for these fine phrases they bolt well-grown, tasty mullet and delicate
thrushes.
SOCRATES
Yes, thanks to these. And is it not right and meet?
STREPSIADES
Tell me then why, if these really are the Clouds, they so very much resemble mortals.
This is not their usual form.
SOCRATES
What are they like then?
STREPSIADES
I don't know exactly; well, they are like great packs of wool, but not like women-no,
not in the least....And these have noses.
SOCRATES
Answer my questions.
STREPSIADES
Willingly! Go on, I am listening.
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SOCRATES
Have you not sometimes seen clouds in the sky like a centaur, a leopard, a wolf or a
bull?
STREPSIADES
Why, certainly I have, but what of that?
SOCRATES
They take what metamorphosis they like. If they see a debauchee with long flowing
locks and hairy as a beast, like the son of Xenophantes, they take the form of a
Centaur in derision of his shameful passion.
STREPSIADES
And when they see Simon, that thiever of public money, what do they do then?
SOCRATES
To picture him to the life, they turn at once into wolves.
STREPSIADES
So that was why yesterday, when they saw Cleonymus, who cast away his buckler
because he is the veriest poltroon amongst men, they changed into deer.
SOCRATES
And to-day they have seen Clisthenes; you see....they are women
STREPSIADES
Hail, sovereign goddesses, and if ever you have let your celestial voice be heard by
mortal ears, speak to me, oh! speak to me, ye all-powerful queens.
CHORUS-LEADER
Hail! veteran of the ancient times, you who burn to instruct yourself in fine language.
And you, great high-priest of subtle nonsense, tell us; your desire. To you and
Prodicus alone of all the hollow orationers of to-day have we lent an ear-to Prodicus,
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because of his knowledge and his great wisdom, and to you, because you walk with
head erect, a confident look, barefooted, resigned to everything and proud of our
protection.
STREPSIADES
Oh! Earth! What august utterances! how sacred! how wondrous!
SOCRATES
That is because these are the only goddesses; all the rest are pure myth.
STREPSIADES
But by the Earth! is our father, Zeus, the Olympian, not a god?
SOCRATES

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Zeus! what Zeus! Are you mad? There is no Zeus.
STREPSIADES
What are you saying now? Who causes the rain to fall? Answer me that!
SOCRATES
Why, these, and I will prove it. Have you ever seen it raining without clouds? Let
Zeus then cause rain with a clear sky and without their presence!
STREPSIADES
By Apollo! that is powerfully argued! For my own part, I always thought it was Zeus
pissing into a sieve. But tell me, who is it makes the thunder, which I so much dread?
SOCRATES
These, when they roll one over the other.
STREPSIADES
But how can that be? you most daring among men!
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SOCRATES
Being full of water, and forced to move along, they are of necessity precipitated in
rain, being fully distended with moisture from the regions where they have been
floating; hence they bump each other heavily and burst with great noise.
STREPSIADES
But is it not Zeus who forces them to move?
SOCRATES
Not at all; it's the aerial Whirlwind.
STREPSIADES
The Whirlwind! ah! I did not know that. So Zeus, it seems, has no existence, and its
the Whirlwind that reigns in his stead? But you have not yet told me what makes the
roll of the thunder?
SOCRATES
Have you not understood me then? I tell you, that the Clouds, when full of rain,
bump against one another, and that, being inordinately swollen out, they burst with a
great noise.
STREPSIADES
How can you make me credit that?
SOCRATES
Take yourself as an example. When you have heartily gorged on stew at the
Panathenaea, you get throes of stomach-ache and then suddenly your belly resounds
with prolonged rumbling.
STREPSIADES
Yes, yes, by Apollo I suffer, I get colic, then the stew sets to rumbling like thunder
and finally bursts forth with a terrific noise. At first, it's but a little gurgling pappax,
pappax! then it increases, papapappax! and when I take my crap, why, it's thunder
indeed, papapappax! pappax!! papapappax!!! just like the clouds.
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SOCRATES
Well then, reflect what a noise is produced by your belly, which is but small. Shall
not the air, which is boundless, produce these mighty claps of thunder?
STREPSIADES
And this is why the names are so much alike: crap and clap. But tell me this. Whence
comes the lightning, the dazzling flame, which at times consumes the man it strikes,
at others hardly singes him. Is it not plain, that Zeus is hurling it at the perjurers?
SOCRATES
Out upon the fool! the driveller! he still savours of the golden age! If Zeus strikes at
the perjurers, why has he not blasted Simon, Cleonymus and Theorus? Of a surety,
greater perjurers cannot exist. No, he strikes his own temple, and Sunium, the
promontory of Athens, and the towering oaks. Now, why should he do that? An oak
is no perjurer.
STREPSIADES
I cannot tell, but it seems to me well argued. What is the lightning then?
SOCRATES
When a dry wind ascends to the Clouds and gets shut into them, it blows them out
like a bladder; finally, being too confined, it bursts them, escapes with fierce violence
and a roar to flash into flame by reason of its own impetuosity.
STREPSIADES
Ah, that's just what happened to me one day. It was at the feast of Zeus! I was
cooking a sow's belly for my family and I had forgotten to slit it open. It swelled out
and, suddenly bursting, discharged itself right into my eyes and burnt my face.
LEADER OF THE CHORUS
Oh, mortal, you who desire to instruct yourself in our great wisdom, the Athenians,
the Greeks will envy you your good fortune. Only you must have the memory and
ardour for study, you must know how to stand the tests, hold your own, go forward
without feeling fatigue, caring but little for food, abstaining from wine, gymnastic
exercises and other similar follies, in fact, you must believe as every man of intellect
should, that the greatest of all blessings is to live and think more clearly than the
vulgar herd, to shine in the contests of words.
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STREPSIADES
If it be a question of hardiness for labour, of spending whole nights at work, of living
sparingly, of fighting my stomach and only eating chickpease, rest assured, I am as
hard as an anvil.
SOCRATES
Henceforward, following our example, you will recognize no other gods but Chaos,
the Clouds and the Tongue, these three alone.
STREPSIADES
I would not speak to the others, even if I met them in the street; not a single sacrifice,
not a libation, not a grain of incense for them!
LEADER OF THE CHORUS
Tell us boldly then what you want of us; you cannot fail to succeed. If you honour
and revere us and if you are resolved to become a clever man.
STREPSIADES
Oh, sovereign goddesses, it is only a very small favour that I ask of you; grant that I
may outdistance all the Greeks by a hundred stadia in the art of speaking.
LEADER OF THE CHORUS
We grant you this, and henceforward no eloquence shall more often succeed with the
people than your own.
STREPSIADES
May the gods shield me from possessing great eloquence! That's not what I want. I
want to be able to turn bad law-suits to my own advantage and to slip through the
fingers of my creditors.
LEADER OF THE CHORUS
It shall be as you wish, for your ambitions are modest. Commit yourself fearlessly to
our ministers, the sophists.
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STREPSIADES
This I will do, for I trust in you. Moreover there is no drawing back, what with these
cursed horses and this marriage, which has eaten up my vitals.
More and more volubly from here to the end of speech
So let them do with me as they will; I yield my body to them. Come blows, come
hunger, thirst, heat or cold, little matters it to me; they may flay me, if I only escape
my debts, if only I win the reputation of being a bold rascal, a fine speaker,
impudent, shameless, a braggart, and adept at stringing lies, an old stager at quibbles,
a complete table of laws, a thorough rattle, a fox to slip through any hole; supple as a
leathern strap, slippery as an eel, an artful fellow, a blusterer, a villain; a knave with a
hundred faces, cunning, intolerable, a gluttonous dog. With such epithets do I seek to
be greeted; on these terms they can treat me as they choose, and, if they wish, by
Demeter! they can turn me into sausages and serve me up to the philosophers.
CHORUS singing
Here have we a bold and well-disposed pupil indeed. When we have taught you, your
glory among the mortals will reach even to the skies.
STREPSIADES singing
Wherein will that profit me?
CHORUS singing
You will pass your whole life among us and will be the most envied of men.
STREPSIADES singing
Shall I really ever see such happiness?
CHORUS singing
Clients will be everlastingly besieging your door in crowds, burning to get at you, to
explain their business to you and to consult you about their suits, which, in return for
your ability, will bring you in great sums.
LEADER OF THE CHORUS
But, Socrates, begin the lessons you want to teach this old man; rouse his mind, try
the strength of his intelligence.
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SOCRATES
Come, tell me the kind of mind you have; it's important that I know this, that I may
order my batteries against you in the right fashion.
STREPSIADES
Eh, what! in the name of the gods, are you purposing to assault me then?
SOCRATES
No. I only wish to ask you some questions. Have you any memory?
STREPSIADES
That depends: if anything is owed me, my memory is excellent, but if I owe, alas! I
have none whatever.
SOCRATES
Have you a natural gift for speaking?
STREPSIADES
For speaking, no; for cheating, yes.
SOCRATES
How will you be able to learn then?
STREPSIADES
Very easily, have no fear.
SOCRATES
Thus, when I throw forth some philosophical thought anent things celestial., you will
seize it in its very flight?
STREPSIADES
Then I am to snap up wisdom much as a dog snaps up a morsel?
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SOCRATES aside
Oh! the ignoramus! the barbarian!
to STREPSIADES
I greatly fear, old man, it will be necessary for me to have recourse to blows. Now,
let me hear what you do when you are beaten.
STREPSIADES
I receive the blow, then wait a moment, take my witnesses and finally summon my
assailant at law.
SOCRATES
Come, take off your cloak.
STREPSIADES
Have I robbed you of anything?
SOCRATES
No. but the usual thing is to enter the school without your cloak.
STREPSIADES
But I have not come here to look for stolen goods.
SOCRATES
Off with it, fool!
STREPSIADES He obeys.
Tell me, if I prove thoroughly attentive and learn with zeal, which O; your disciples
shall I resemble, do you think?
SOCRATES
You will be the image of Chaerephon.
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STREPSIADES
Ah! unhappy me! Shall I then be only half alive?
SOCRATES
A truce to this chatter! follow me and no more of it.
STREPSIADES
First give me a honey-cake, for to descend down there sets me all a-tremble; it looks
like the cave of Trophonius.CLOUDS Critical Summary Assignment
SOCRATES
But get in with you! What reason have you for thus dallying at the door?
They go into the Thoughtery.
LEADER OF THE CHORUS
Good luck! you have courage; may you succeed, you, who, though already so
advanced in years, wish to instruct your mind with new studies and practise it in
wisdom!
The CHORUS turns and faces the Audience.
Spectators! By Bacchus, whose servant I am, I will frankly tell you the truth. May I
secure both victory and renown as certainly as I hold you for adept critics and as I
regard this comedy as my best. I wished to give you the first view of a work, which
had cost me much trouble, but which I withdrew, unjustly beaten by unskilful rivals.
It is you, oh, enlightened public, for whom I have prepared my piece, that I reproach
with this. Nevertheless I shall never willingly cease to seek the approval of the
discerning. I have not forgotten the day, when men, whom one is happy to have for
an audience, received my Virtuous Young Man and my Paederast with so much
favour in this very place. Then as yet virgin, my Muse had not attained the age for
maternity; she had to expose her first-born for another to adopt, and it has since
grown up under your generous patronage. Ever since you have as good as sworn me
your faithful alliance. Thus, like the Electra of the poets, my comedy has come to
seek you to-day, hoping again to encounter such enlightened spectators. As far away
as she can discern her Orestes, she will be able to recognize him by his curly head.
And note her modest demeanour! She has not sewn on a piece of hanging leather,
thick and reddened at the end, to cause laughter among the children; she does not rail
at the bald, neither does she dance the cordax; no old man is seen, who, while
uttering his lines, batters his questioner with a stick to make his poor jests pass
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muster. She does not rush upon the scene carrying a torch and screaming, 'Iou! Iou!'
No, she relies upon herself and her verses....My value is so well known, that I take no
further pride in it. I do not seek to deceive you, by reproducing the same subjects two
or three times; I always invent fresh themes to present before you, themes that have
no relation to each other and that are all clever. I attacked Cleon to his face and when
he was all-powerful; but he has fallen, and now I have no desire to kick him when he
is down. My rivals, on the contrary, now that this wretched Hyperbolus has given
them the cue, have never ceased setting upon both him and his mother. First Eupolis
presented his 'Maricas'; this was simply my 'Knights,' whom this plagiarist had
clumsily furbished up again by adding to the piece an old drunken woman, so that
she might dance the cordax. It was an old idea, taken from Phrynichus, who caused
his old hag to be devoured by a monster of the deep. Then Hermippus fell foul of
Hyperbolus and now all the others fall upon him and repeat my comparison of the
eels. May those who find amusement in their pieces not be pleased with mine, but as
for you, who love and applaud my inventions, why, posterity will praise your good
taste.
FIRST SEMI-CHORUS singing
Oh, ruler of Olympus, all-powerful king of the gods, great Zeus, it is thou whom I
first invoke; protect this chorus; and thou too, Posidon, whose dread trident upheaves
at the will of thy anger both the bowels of the earth and the salty waves of the ocean.
I invoke my illustrious father, the divine Aether, the universal sustainer of life, and
Phoebus, who, from the summit of his chariot, sets the world aflame with his
dazzling rays, Phoebus, a mighty deity amongst the gods and adored amongst
mortals.CLOUDS Critical Summary Assignment
LEADER OF FIRST SEMI-CHORUS
Most wise spectators, lend us all your attention. Give heed to our just reproaches.
There exist no gods to whom this city owes more than it does to us, whom alone you
forget. Not a sacrifice, not a libation is there for those who protect you! Have you
decreed some mad expedition? Well! we thunder or we fall down in rain. When you
chose that enemy of heaven, the Paphlagonian tanner, for a general, we knitted our
brow, we caused our wrath to break out; the lightning shot forth, the thunder pealed,
the moon deserted her course and the sun at once veiled his beam threatening, no
longer to give you light, if Cleon became general. Nevertheless you elected him; it is
said, Athens never resolves upon some fatal step but the gods turn these errors into
her greatest gain. Do you wish that his election should even now be a success for
you? It is a very simple thing to do; condemn this rapacious gull named Cleon for
bribery and extortion, fit a wooden collar tight round his neck, and your error will be
rectified and the commonweal will at once regain its old prosperity.
SECOND SEMI-CHORUS singing
Aid me also, Phoebus, god of Delos, who reignest on the cragged peaks of Cynthia;
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and thou, happy virgin, to whom the Lydian damsels offer pompous sacrifice in a
temple; of gold; and thou, goddess of our country, Athene, armed with the aegis, the
protectress of Athens; and thou, who, surrounded by the bacchants of Delphi;
roamest over the rocks of Parnassus shaking the flame of thy resinous torch, thou,
Bacchus, the god of revel and joy.
LEADER OF SECOND SEMI-CHORUS
As we were preparing to come here, we were hailed by the Moon and were charged
to wish joy and happiness both to the Athenians and to their allies; further, she said
that she was enraged and that you treated her very shamefully, her, who does not pay
you in words alone, but who renders you all real benefits. Firstly, thanks to her, you
save at least a drachma each month for lights, for each, as he is leaving home at
night, says, "Slave, buy no torches, for the moonlight is beautiful,"-not to name a
thousand other benefits. Nevertheless you do not reckon the days correctly and your
calendar is naught but confusion. Consequently the gods load her with threats each
time they get home and are disappointed of their meal, because the festival has not
been kept in the regular order of time. When you should be sacrificing, you are
putting to the torture or administering justice. And often, we others, the gods, are
fasting in token of mourning for the death of Memnon or Sarpedon, while you are
devoting yourselves to joyous libations. It is for this, that last year, when the lot
would have invested Hyperbolus with the duty of Amphictyon, we took his crown
from him, to teach him that time must be divided according to the phases of the
moon.
SOCRATES coming out
By Respiration, the Breath of Life! By Chaos! By the Air! I have never seen a man
so gross, so inept, so stupid, so forgetful. All the little quibbles, which I teach him, he
forgets even before he has learnt them. Yet I will not give it up, I will make him
come out here into the open air. Where are you, Strepsiades? Come, bring your
couch out here.
STREPSIADES from within
But the bugs will not allow me to bring it.
SOCRATES
Have done with such nonsense! place it there and pay attention.
STREPSIADES coming out, with the bed
Well, here I am.
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SOCRATES
Good! Which science of all those you have never been taught, do you wish to learn
first? The measures, the rhythms or the verses?
STREPSIADES
Why, the measures; the flour dealer cheated me out of two choenixes the other day.
SOCRATES
It's not about that I ask you, but which, according to you, is the best measure, the
trimeter or the tetrameter?
STREPSIADES
The one I prefer is the semisextarius.
SOCRATES
You talk nonsense, my good fellow.
STREPSIADES
I will wager your tetrameter is the semisextarius.
SOCRATES
Plague seize the dunce and the fool! Come, perchance you will learn the rhythms
quicker.
STREPSIADES
Will the rhythms supply me with food?
SOCRATES
First they will help you to be pleasant in company, then to know what is meant by
enhoplian rhythm and what by the dactylic.
STREPSIADES
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Of the dactyl? I know that quite well.
SOCRATES
What is it then, other than this finger here?
STREPSIADES
Formerly, when a child, I used this one.
SOCRATES
You are as low-minded as you are stupid.
STREPSIADES
But, wretched man, I do not want to learn all this.
SOCRATES
Then what do you want to know?
STREPSIADES
Not that, not that, but the art of false reasoning.
SOCRATES
But you must first learn other things. Come, what are the male quadrupeds?
STREPSIADES
Oh! I know the males thoroughly. Do you take me for a fool then? The ram, the
buck, the bull, the dog, the pigeon.
SOCRATES
Do you see what you are doing; is not the female pigeon called the same as the male?
STREPSIADES
How else? Come now!
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SOCRATES
How else? With you then it's pigeon and pigeon!
STREPSIADES
That's right, by Posidon! but what names do you want me to give them?
SOCRATES
Term the female pigeonnette and the male pigeon.
STREPSIADES
Pigeonnette! hah! by the Air! That's splendid! for that lesson bring out your
kneading-trough and I will fill him with flour to the brim.
SOCRATES
There you are wrong again; you make trough masculine and it should be feminine.
STREPSIADES
What? if I say, him, do I make the trough masculine?
SOCRATES
Assuredly! would you not say him for Cleonymus?
STREPSIADES
Well?
SOCRATES
Then trough is of the same gender as Cleonymus?
STREPSIADES
My good man! Cleonymus never had a kneading-trough; he used a round mortar for
the purpose. But come, tell me what I should say!
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SOCRATES
For trough you should say her as you would for Soctrate.
STREPSIADES
Her?
SOCRATES
In this manner you make it truly female.
STREPSIADES
That's it! Her for trough and her for Cleonymus.
SOCRATE,"
Now I must teach you to distinguish the masculine proper names from those that are
feminine.
STREPSIADES
Ah! I know the female names well.
SOCRATES
Name some then.
STREPSIADES
Lysilla, Philinna, Clitagora, Demetria.
SOCRATES
And what are masculine names?
STREPSIADES
They are are countless-Philoxenus, Melesias, Amynias.
SOCRATES
But, wretched man, the last two are not masculine.
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STREPSIADES
You do not count them as masculine?
SOCRATES
Not at all. If you met Amynias, how would you hail him?
STREPSIADES
How? Why, I should shout, "Hi, there, Amynia!
SOCRATES
Do you see? it's a female name that you give him.
STREPSIADES
And is it not rightly done, since he refuses military service? But what use is there in
learning what we all know?
SOCRATES
You know nothing about it. Come, lie down there.
STREPSIADES
What for?
SOCRATES
Ponder awhile over matters that interest you.
STREPSIADES
Oh! I pray you, not there but, if I must lie down and ponder, let me lie on the ground.
SOCRATES
That's out of the question. Come! on the couch!
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STREPSIADES as he lies down
What cruel fate! What a torture the bugs will this day put me to!
Socrates turns aside.
CHORUS singing
Ponder and examine closely, gather your thoughts together, let your mind turn to
every side of things; if you meet with a difficulty, spring quickly to some other idea;
above all, keep your eyes away from all gentle sleep.
STREPSIADES singing
Ow, Wow, Wow, Wow is me!
CHORUS singing
What ails you? why do you cry so?
STREPSIADES
Oh! I am a dead man! Here are these cursed Corinthians advancing upon me from all
corners of the couch; they are biting me, they are gnawing at my sides, they are
drinking all my blood, they are yanking of my balls, they are digging into my arse,
they are killing me!
LEADER OF THE CHORUS
Not so much wailing and clamour, if you please.
STREPSIADES
How can I obey? I have lost my money and my complexion, my blood and my
slippers, and to cap my misery, I must keep awake on this couch, when scarce a
breath of life is left in me.
A brief interval of silence ensues.
SOCRATES
Well now! what are you doing? are you reflecting?
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STREPSIADES
Yes, by Posidon!
SOCRATES
What about?
STREPSIADES
Whether the bugs will entirely devour me.
SOCRATES
May death seize you, accursed man!
He turns aside again.
STREPSIADES
Ah it has already.
SOCRATES
Come, no giving way! Cover up your head; the thing to do is to find an ingenious
alternative.
STREPSIADES
An alternative! ah! I only wish one would come to me from within these coverlets!
Another interval of silence ensues.
SOCRATES
Wait! let us see what our fellow is doing! Ho! are you asleep?
STREPSIADES
No, by Apollo!
SOCRATES
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Have you got hold of anything?
STREPSIADES
No, nothing whatever.
SOCRATES
Nothing at all?
STREPSIADES
No, nothing except my tool, which I've got in my hand.
SOCRATES
Aren't you going to cover your head immediately and ponder?
STREPSIADES
On what? Come, Socrates, tell me.
SOCRATES
Think first what you want, and then tell me.
STREPSIADES
But I have told you a thousand times what I want. Not to pay any of my creditors.
SOCRATES
Come, wrap yourself up; concentrate your mind, which wanders to lightly; study
every detail, scheme and examine thoroughly.
STREPSIADES
Alas! Alas!
SOCRATES
Keep still, and if any notion troubles you, put it quickly aside, then resume it and
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think over it again.
STREPSIADES
My dear little Socrates!
SOCRATES
What is it, old greybeard?
STREPSIADES
I have a scheme for not paying my debts.
SOCRATES
Let us hear it.
STREPSIADES
Tell me, if I purchased a Thessalian witch, I could make the moon descend during
the night and shut it, like a mirror, into a round box and there keep it carefully....
SOCRATES
How would you gain by that?
STREPSIADES
How? why, if the moon did not rise, I would have no interest to pay.
SOCRATES
Why so?
STREPSIADES
Because money is lent by the month.
SOCRATES
Good! but I am going to propose another trick to you. If you were condemned to pay
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five talents, how would you manage to quash that verdict? Tell me.
STREPSIADES
How? how? I don't know, I must think.
SOCRATES
Do you always shut your thoughts within yourself? Let your ideas fly in the air, like
a may-bug, tied by the foot with a thread.
STREPSIADES
I have found a very clever way to annul that conviction; you will admit that much
yourself.
SOCRATES
What is it?
STREPSIADES
Have you ever seen a beautiful, transparent stone at the druggists', with which you
may kindle fire?
SOCRATES
You mean a crystal lens.
STREPSIADES
That's right. Well, now if I placed myself with this stone in the sun and a long way
off from the clerk, while he was writing out the conviction, I could make all the wax,
upon which the words were written, melt.
SOCRATES
Well thought out, by the Graces!
STREPSIADES
Ah! I am delighted to have annulled the decree that was to cost me five talents.
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SOCRATES
Come, take up this next question quickly.
STREPSIADES
Which?
SOCRATES
If, when summoned to court, you were in danger of losing your case for want of
witnesses, how would you make the conviction fall upon your opponent?
STREPSIADES
That's very simple and easy.
SOCRATES
Let me hear.
STREPSIADES
This way. If another case had to be pleaded before mine was called, I should run and
hang myself.CLOUDS Critical Summary Assignment
SOCRATES
You talk rubbish!
STREPSIADES
Not so, by the gods! if I were dead, no action could lie against me.
SOCRATES
You are merely beating the air. Get out! I will give you no more lessons.
STREPSIADES imploringly
Why not? Oh! Socrates! in the name of the gods!
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SOCRATES
But you forget as fast as you learn. Come, what was the thing I taught you first? Tell
me.
STREPSIADES
Ah let me see. What was the first thing? What was it then? Ah! that thing in which
we knead the bread, oh! my god! what do you call it?
SOCRATES
Plague take the most forgetful and silliest of old addlepates!
STREPSIADES
Alas! what a calamity! what will become of me? I am undone if I do not learn how to
ply my tongue. Oh! Clouds! give me good advice.
CHORUS-LEADER
Old man, we counsel you, if you have brought up a son, to send him to learn in your
stead.
STREPSIADES
Undoubtedly I have a son, as well endowed as the best, but he is unwilling to learn.
What will become of me?
CHORUS-LEADER
And you don't make him obey you?
STREPSIADES
You see, he is big and strong; moreover, through his mother he is a descendant of
those fine birds, the race of Coesyra. Nevertheless, I will go and find him, and if he
refuses, I will turn him out of the house. Go in, Socrates, and wait for me awhile.
SOCRATES goes into the Thoughtery, STREPSIADES into his own house.
CHORUS singing
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Do you understand, Socrates, that thanks to us you will be loaded with benefits?
Here is a man, ready to obey you in all things. You see how he is carried away with
admiration and enthusiasm. Profit by it to clip him as short as possible; fine chances
are all too quickly gone.
STREPSIADES coming out of his house and pushing his son in front of him
No, by the Clouds! you stay here no longer; go and devour the ruins of your uncle
Megacles' fortune.
PHIDIPPIDES
Oh! my poor father! what has happened to you? By the Olympian
Zeus! You are no longer in your senses!
STREPSIADES
Look! "the Olympian Zeus." Oh! you fool! to believe in Zeus at your age!
PHIDIPPIDES
What is there in that to make you laugh?
STREPSIADES
You are then a tiny little child, if you credit such antiquated rubbish! But come here,
that I may teach you; I will tell you something very necessary to know to be a man;
but do not repeat it to anybody.
PHIDIPPIDES
Tell me, what is it?
STREPSIADES
Just now you swore by Zeus.
PHIDIPPIDES
Sure I did.
STREPSIADES
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Do you see how good it is to learn? Phidippides, there is no Zeus.
PHIDIPPIDES
What is there then?
STREPSIADES
The Whirlwind has driven out Zeus and is King now.
PHIDIPPIDES
What drivel!
STREPSIADES
You must realize that it is true.
PHIDIPPIDES
And who says so?CLOUDS Critical Summary Assignment
STREPSIADES
Socrates, the Melian, and Chaerephon, who knows how to measure the jump of a
flea.
PHIDIPPIDES
Have you reached such a pitch of madness that you believe those bilious fellows?
STREPSIADES
Use better language, and do not insult men who are clever and full of wisdom, who,
to economize, never shave, shun the gymnasia and never go to the baths, while you,
you only await my death to eat up my wealth. But come, come as quickly as you can
to learn in my stead.
PHIDIPPIDES
And what good can be learnt of them?
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STREPSIADES
What good indeed? Why, all human knowledge. Firstly, you will know yourself
grossly ignorant. But await me here awhile.
He goes back into his house.
PHIDIPPIDES
Alas! what is to be done? Father has lost his wits. Must I have him certificated for
lunacy, or must I order his coffin?
STREPSIADES returning with a bird in each hand
Come! what kind of bird is this? Tell me.
PHIDIPPIDES
A pigeon.
STREPSIADES
Good! And this female?
PHIDIPPIDES
A pigeon.
STREPSIADES
The same for both? You make me laugh! In the future you must call this one a
pigeonnette and the other a pigeon.
PHIDIPPIDES
A pigeonnette! These then are the fine things you have just learnt at the school of
these sons of Earth!
STREPSIADES
And many others; but what I learnt I forgot at once, because I am to old.
PHIDIPPIDES
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So this is why you have lost your cloak?
STREPSIADES
I have not lost it, I have consecrated it to Philosophy.
PHIDIPPIDES
And what have you done with your sandals, you poor fool?
STREPSIADES
If I have lost them, it is for what was necessary, just as Pericles did. But come, move
yourself, let us go in; if necessary, do wrong to obey your father. When you were six
years old and still lisped, I was the one who obeyed you. I remember at the feasts of
Zeus you had a consuming wish for a little chariot and I bought it for you with the
first obolus which I received as a juryman in the courts.
PHIDIPPIDES
You will soon repent of what you ask me to do.
STREPSIADES
Oh! now I am happy! He obeys.
loudly
Come, Socrates, come! Come out quick! Here I am bringing you my son; he refused,
but I have persuaded him.
SOCRATES
Why, he is but a child yet. He is not used to these baskets, in which we suspend our
minds.
PHIDIPPIDES
To make you better used to them, I would you were hung.
STREPSIADES
A curse upon you! you insult your master!
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SOCRATES
"I would you were hung!" What a stupid speech! and so emphatically spoken! How
can one ever get out of an accusation with such a tone, summon witnesses or touch
or convince? And yet when we think, Hyperbolus learnt all this for one talent!
STREPSIADES
Rest undisturbed and teach him. He has a most intelligent nature. Even when quite
little he amused himself at home with making houses, carving boats, constructing
little chariots of leather, and understood wonderfully how to make frogs out of
pomegranate rinds. Teach him both methods of reasoning, the strong and also the
weak, which by false arguments triumphs over the strong; if not the two, at least the
false, and that in every possible way.
SOCRATES
The Just and Unjust Discourse themselves shall instruct him. I shall leave you.
STREPSIADES
But forget it not, he must always, always be able to confound the true.
Socrates enters the Thoughtery; a moment later the JUST and the UNJUST DISCOURSE come
out; they are quarrelling violently.
JUST DISCOURSE
Come here! Shameless as you may be, will you dare to show your face to the
spectators?
UNJUST DISCOURSE
Take me where you will. I seek a throng, so that I may the better annihilate you.
JUST DISCOURSE
Annihilate me! Do you forget who you are?
UNJUST DISCOURSE
I am Reasoning.
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JUST DISCOURSE
Yes, the weaker Reasoning."CLOUDS Critical Summary Assignment
UNJUST DISCOURSE
But I triumph over you, who claim to be the stronger.
JUST DISCOURSE
By what cunning shifts, pray?
UNJUST DISCOURSE
By the invention of new maxims.
JUST DISCOURSE
.... which are received with favour by these fools.
He points to the audience.
UNJUST DISCOURSE
Say rather, by these wise men.
JUST DISCOURSE
I am going to destroy you mercilessly.
UNJUST DISCOURSE
How pray? Let us see you do it.
JUST DISCOURSE
By saying what is true.
UNJUST DISCOURSE
I shall retort and shall very soon have the better of you. First, maintain that justice
has no existence.
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JUST DISCOURSE
Has no existence?
UNJUST DISCOURSE
No existence! Why, where is it?
JUST DISCOURSE
With the gods.
UNJUST DISCOURSE
How then, if justice exists, was Zeus not put to death for having put his father in
chains?
JUST DISCOURSE
Bah! this is enough to turn my stomach! A basin, quick!
UNJUST DISCOURSE
You are an old driveller and stupid withal.
JUST DISCOURSE
And you a degenerate and shameless fellow.
UNJUST DISCOURSE
Hah! What sweet expressions!
JUST DISCOURSE
An impious buffoon.
UNJUST DISCOURSE
You crown me with roses and with lilies.
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JUST DISCOURSE
A parricide.
UNJUST DISCOURSE
Why, you shower gold upon me.
JUST DISCOURSE
Formerly it was a hailstorm of blows.
UNJUST DISCOURSE
I deck myself with your abuse.
JUST DISCOURSE
What impudence!
UNJUST DISCOURSE
What tomfoolery!
JUST DISCOURSE
It is because of you that the youth no longer attends the schools. The Athenians will
soon recognize what lessons you teach those who are fools enough to believe you.
UNJUST DISCOURSE
You are overwhelmed with wretchedness.
JUST DISCOURSE
And you, you prosper. Yet you were poor when you said, "I am the Mysian
Telephus," and used to stuff your wallet with maxims of Pandeletus to nibble at.
UNJUST DISCOURSE
Oh! the beautiful wisdom, of which you are now boasting!CLOUDS Critical Summary Assignment
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JUST DISCOURSE
Madman! But yet madder the city that keeps you, you, the corrupter of its youth!
UNJUST DISCOURSE
It is not you who will teach this young man; you are as old and out of date at Cronus.
JUST DISCOURSE
Nay, it will certainly be I, if he does not wish to be lost and to practise verbosity
only.
UNJUST DISCOURSE
(to PHIDIPPIDES) Come here and leave him to beat the air.
JUST DISCOURSE
You'll regret it, if you touch him.
CHORUS-LEADER
(stepping between them as they are about to come to blows) A truce to your
quarrellings and abuse! But you expound what you taught us formerly, and you, your
new doctrine. Thus, after hearing each of you argue, he will be able to choose
betwixt the two schools.
JUST DISCOURSE
I am quite agreeable.
UNJUST DISCOURSE
And I too.
LEADER OF THE CHORUS
Who is to speak first?
UNJUST DISCOURSE
Let it be my opponent, he has my full consent; then I shall follow upon the very
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ground he shall have chosen and shall shatter him with a hail of new ideas and subtle
fancies; if after that he dares to breathe another word, I shall sting him in the face and
in the eyes with our maxims, which are as keen as the sting of a wasp, and he will
die.
CHORUS
(singing) Here are two rivals confident in their powers of oratory and in the thoughts
over which they have pondered so long. Let us see which will come triumphant out
of the contest. This wisdom, for which my friends maintain such a persistent fight, is
in great danger.
LEADER OF THE CHORUS
Come then, you, who crowned men of other days with so many virtues, plead the
cause dear to you, make yourself known to us.
JUST DISCOURSE
Very well, I will tell you what was the old education, when I used to teach justice
with so much success and when modesty was held in veneration. Firstly, it was
required of a child, that it should not utter a word. In the street, when they went to
the music-school, all the youths of the same district marched lightly clad and ranged
in good order, even when the snow was falling in great flakes. At the master's house
they had to stand with their legs apart and they were taught to sing either, "Pallas, the
Terrible, who overturneth cities," or "A noise resounded from afar" in the solemn
tones of the ancient harmony. If anyone indulged in buffoonery or lent his voice any
of the soft inflexions, like those which to-day the disciples of Phrynis take so much
pains to form, he was treated as an enemy of the Muses and belaboured with blows.
In the wrestling school they would sit with outstretched legs and without display of
any indecency to the curious. When they rose, they would smooth over the sand, so
as to leave no trace to excite obscene thoughts. Never was a child rubbed with oil
below the belt; the rest of their bodies thus retained its fresh bloom and down, like a
velvety peach. They were not to be seen approaching a lover and themselves rousing
his passion by soft modulation of the voice and lustful gaze. At table, they would not
have dared, before those older than themselves, to have taken a radish, an aniseed or
a leaf of parsley, and much less eat fish or thrushes or cross their legs.
UNJUST DISCOURSE
What antiquated rubbish! Have we got back to the days of the festivals of Zeus
Polieus, to the Buphonia, to the time of the poet Cecides and the golden cicadas?
JUST DISCOURSE
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Nevertheless by suchlike teaching I built up the men of Marathon-But you, you teach
the children of to-day to bundle themselves quickly into their clothes, and I am
enraged when I see them at the Panathenaea forgetting Athene while they dance, and
covering their tools with their bucklers. Hence, young man, dare to range yourself
beside me, who follow justice and truth; you will then be able to shun the public
place, to refrain from the baths, to blush at all that is shameful, to fire up if your
virtue is mocked at, to give place to your elders, to honour your parents, in short, to
avoid all that is evil. Be modesty itself, and do not run to applaud the dancing girls; if
you delight in such scenes, some courtesan will cast you her apple and your
reputation will be done for. Do not bandy words with your father, nor treat him as a
dotard, nor reproach the old man, who has cherished you, with his age.CLOUDS Critical Summary Assignment
UNJUST DISCOURSE
If you listen to him, by Bacchus! you will be the image of the sons of Hippocrates
and will be called mother's big ninny.
JUST DISCOURSE
No, but you will pass your days at the gymnasia, glowing with strength and health;
you will not go to the public place to cackle and wrangle as is done nowadays; you
will not live in fear that you may be dragged before the courts for some trifle
exaggerated by quibbling. But you will go down to the Academy to run beneath the
sacred olives with some virtuous friend of your own age, your head encircled with
the white reed, enjoying your ease and breathing the perfume of the yew and of the
fresh sprouts of the poplar, rejoicing in the return of springtide and gladly listening to
the gentle rustle of the plane tree and the elm. (With greater warmth from here on) If
you devote yourself to practising my precepts, your chest will be stout, your colour
glowing, your shoulders broad, your tongue short, your hips muscular, but your tool
small. But if you follow the fashions of the day, you will be pallid in hue, have
narrow shoulders, a narrow chest, a long tongue, small hips and a big thing; you will
know how to spin forth long-winded arguments on law. You will be persuaded also
to regard as splendid everything that is shameful and as shameful everything that is
honourable; in a word, you will wallow in degeneracy like Antimachus.
CHORUS
(singing) How beautiful, high-souled, brilliant is this wisdom that you practise! What
a sweet odour of honesty is emitted by your discourse! Happy were those men of
other days who lived when you were honoured! And you, seductive talker, come,
find some fresh arguments, for your rival has done wonders.
LEADER OF THE CHORUS
You will have to bring out against him all the battery of your wit, it you desire to beat
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him and not to be laughed out of court.
UNJUST DISCOURSE
At last! I was choking with impatience, I was burning to upset his arguments! If I am
called the Weaker Reasoning in the schools, it is just because I was the first to
discover the means to confute the laws and the decrees of justice. To invoke solely
the weaker arguments and yet triumph is an art worth more than a hundred thousand
drachmae. But see how I shall batter down the sort of education of which he is so
proud. Firstly, he forbids you to bathe in hot water. What grounds have you for
condemning hot baths?
JUST DISCOURSE
Because they are baneful and enervate men.
UNJUST DISCOURSE
Enough said! Oh! you poor wrestler! From the very outset I have seized you and
hold you round the middle; you cannot escape me. Tell me, of all the sons of Zeus,
who had the stoutest heart, who performed the most doughty deeds?
JUST DISCOURSE
None, in my opinion, surpassed Heracles.
UNJUST DISCOURSE
Where have you ever seen cold baths called 'Bath of Heracles'? And yet who was
braver than he?
JUST DISCOURSE
It is because of such quibbles, that the baths are seen crowded with young folk, who
chatter there the livelong day while the gymnasia remain empty.
UNJUST DISCOURSE
Next you condemn the habit of frequenting the market-place, while I approve this. If
it were wrong Homer would never have made Nestor speak in public as well as all
his wise heroes. As for the art of speaking, he tells you, young men should not
practise it; I hold the contrary. Furthermore he preaches chastity to them. Both
precepts are equally harmful. Have you ever seen chastity of any use to anyone?
Answer and try to confute me.
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JUST DISCOURSE
To many; for instance, Peleus won a sword thereby.
UNJUST DISCOURSE A
sword! Ah! what a fine present to make him! Poor wretch! Hyperbolus, the lampseller,
thanks to his villainy, has gained more than....do not know how many talents,
but certainly no sword.
JUST DISCOURSE
Peleus owed it to his chastity that he became the husband of Thetis.
UNJUST DISCOURSE
.... who left him in the lurch, for he was not the most ardent; in those nocturnal sports
between the sheets, which so please women, he possessed but little merit. Get you
gone, you are but an old fool. But you, young man, just consider a little what this
temperance means and the delights of which it deprives you-young fellows, women,
play, dainty dishes, wine, boisterous laughter. And what is life worth without these?
Then, if you happen to commit one of these faults inherent in human weakness, some
seduction or adultery, and you are caught in the act, you are lost, if you cannot speak.
But follow my teaching and you will be able to satisfy your passions, to dance, to
laugh, to blush at nothing. Suppose you are caught in the act of adultery. Then up and
tell the husband you are not guilty, and recall to him the example of Zeus, who
allowed himself to be conquered by love and by women. Being but a mortal, can you
be stronger than a god?
JUST DISCOURSE
Suppose your pupil, following your advice, gets the radish rammed up his arse and
then is depilated with a hot coal; how are you going to prove to him that he is not a
broad-arse?
UNJUST DISCOURSE
What's the matter with being a broad-arse?
JUST DISCOURSE
Is there anything worse than that?
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UNJUST DISCOURSE
Now what will you say, if I beat you even on this point?
JUST DISCOURSE
I should certainly have to be silent then.
UNJUST DISCOURSE
Well then, reply! Our advocates, what are they?
JUST DISCOURSE
Sons of broad-arses.
UNJUST DISCOURSE
Nothing is more true. And our tragic poets?
JUST DISCOURSE
Sons of broad-arses.
UNJUST DISCOURSE
Well said again. And our demagogues?
JUST DISCOURSE
Sons of broad-arses.
UNJUST DISCOURSE
You admit that you have spoken nonsense. And the spectators, what are they for the
most part? Look at them.
JUST DISCOURSE
I am looking at them.
UNJUST DISCOURSE
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Well! What do you see?
JUST DISCOURSE
By the gods, they are nearly all broad-arses. (pointing) See, this one I know to be
such and that one and that other with the long hair.
UNJUST DISCOURSE
What have you to say, then?
JUST DISCOURSE
I am beaten. Debauchees! in the name of the gods, receive my cloak; I pass over to
your ranks. (He goes back into the Thoughtery.)
UNJUST DISCOURSE
Well then! Are you going to take away your son or do you wish me to teach him how
to speak?
STREPSIADES
Teach him, chastise him and do not fail to sharpen his tongue well, on one side for
petty law-suits and on the other for important cases.
UNJUST DISCOURSE
Don't worry, I shall return him to you an accomplished sophist.
PHIDIPPIDES
Very pale then and thoroughly hang-dog-looking.
LEADER OF THE CHORUS
Take him with you. (The UNJUST DISCOURSE and PHIDIPPIDES
go into the THOUGHTERY. To STREPSIADES, who is just going into
his own house.) I think you will regret this. (The CHORUS turns and
faces the audience.) judges, we are all about to tell you what you will
gain by awarding us the crown as equity requires of you. In spring, when
you wish to give your fields the first dressing, we will rain upon you
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first; the others shall wait. Then we will watch over your corn and over
your vinestocks; they will have no excess to fear, neither of heat nor of
wet. But if a mortal dares to insult the goddesses of the Clouds, let him
think of the ills we shall pour upon him. For him neither wine nor any
harvest at all! Our terrible slings will mow down his young olive plants
and his vines. If he is making bricks, it will rain, and our round
hailstones will break the tiles of his roof. If he himself marries or any of
his relations or friends, we shall cause rain to fall the whole night long.
Verily, he would prefer to live in Egypt than to have given this iniquitous
verdict.CLOUDS Critical Summary Assignment
STREPSIADES
(coming out again) Another four, three, two days, then the eve, then the
day, the fatal day of payment! I tremble, I quake, I shudder, for it's the
day of the old moon and the new. Then all my creditors take the oath,
pay their deposits, I swear my downfall and my ruin. As for me, I
beseech them to be reasonable, to be just, "My friend, do not demand
this sum, wait a little for this other and give me time for this third one."
Then they will pretend that at this rate they will never be repaid, will
accuse me of bad faith and will threaten me with the law. Well then, let
them sue me! I care nothing for that, if only Phidippides has learnt to
speak fluently. I am going to find out; I'll knock at the door of the
school. (He knocks.) .... Ho! slave, slave!
SOCRATES
(coming out) Welcome! Strepsiades!
STREPSIADES
Welcome! Socrates! But first take this sack; (offers him a sack of flour)
it is right to reward the master with some present. And my son, whom
you took off lately, has he learnt this famous reasoning? Tell me.
SOCRATES
He has learnt it.
STREPSIADES
Wonderful! Oh! divine Knavery!
SOCRATES
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You will win just as many causes as you choose.
STREPSIADES
Even if I have borrowed before witnesses?
SOCRATES
So much the better, even if there are a thousand of them!
STREPSIADES
(bursting into song) Then I am going to shout with all my might. "Woe
to the usurers, woe to their capital and their interest and their compound
interest! You shall play me no more bad turns. My son is being taught
there, his tongue is being sharpened into a double-edged weapon; he is
my defender, the saviour of my house, the ruin of my foes! His poor
father was crushed down with misfortune and he delivers him." Go and
call him to me quickly. Oh! my child! my dear little one! run forward to
your father's voice!
SOCRATES
(singing) Lo, the man himself!
STREPSIADES
(singing) Oh, my friend, my dearest friend!
SOCRATES
(singing) Take your son, and get you gone.
STREPSIADES
(as PHIDIPPIDES appears) Oh, my son! oh! oh! what a pleasure to see
your pallor! You are ready first to deny and then to contradict; it's as
clear as noon. What a child of your country you are! How your lips
quiver with the famous, "What have you to say now?" How well you
know, I am certain, to put on the look of a victim, when it is you who are
making both victims and dupes! And what a truly Attic glance! Come,
it's for you to save me, seeing it is you who have ruined me.
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PHIDIPPIDES
What is it you fear then?
STREPSIADES
The day of the old and the new.
PHIDIPPIDES
Is there then a day of the old and the new?
STREPSIADES
The day on which they threaten to pay deposit against me.
PHIDIPPIDES
Then so much the worse for those who have deposited! for it's not
possible for one day to be two.
STREPSIADES
What?
PHIDIPPIDES
Why, undoubtedly, unless a woman can be both old and young at the
same time.
STREPSIADES
But so runs the law.
PHIDIPPIDES
I think the meaning of the law is quite misunderstood.
STREPSIADES
What does it mean?
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PHIDIPPIDES
Old Solon loved the people.
STREPSIADES
What has that to do with the old day and the new?
PHIDIPPIDES
He has fixed two days for the summons, the last day of the old moon and
the first day of the new; but the deposits must only be paid on the first
day of the new moon.
STREPSIADES
And why did he also name the last day of the old?
PHIDIPPIDES
So, my dear sir, that the debtors, being there the day before, might free
themselves by mutual agreement, or that else, if not, the creditor might
begin his action on the morning of the new moon.
STREPSIADES
Why then do the magistrates have the deposits paid on the last of the
month and not the next day?CLOUDS Critical Summary Assignment
PHIDIPPIDES
I think they do as the gluttons do, who are the first to pounce upon the
dishes. Being eager to carry off these deposits, they have them paid in a
day too soon.
STREPSIADES
Splendid! (to the audience) Ah! you poor brutes, who serve for food to
us clever folk! You are only down here to swell the number, true
blockheads, sheep for shearing, heap of empty pots! Hence I will sing a
song of victory for my son and myself. "Oh! happy, Strepsiades! what
cleverness is thine! and what a son thou hast here!" Thus my friends and
my neighbours will say, jealous at seeing me gain all my suits. But come
in, I wish to regale you first. (They both go in. A moment later a creditor
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arrives, with his witness.)
PASIAS
(to the WITNESS) A man should never lend a single obolus. It would be
better to put on a brazen face at the outset than to get entangled in such
matters. I want to see my money again and I bring you here to-day to
attest the loan. I am going to make a foe of a neighbour; but, as long as I
live, I do not wish my country to have to blush for me. Come, I am
going to summon Strepsiades....
STREPSIADES
(coming out of his house) Who is this?
PASIAS
....for the old day and the new.
STREPSIADES
(to the WITNESS) I call you to witness, that he has named two days.
What do you want of me?
PASIAS
I claim of you the twelve minae, which you borrowed from me to buy
the dapple-grey horse.
STREPSIADES A
horse! do you hear him? I, who detest horses, as is well known.
PASIAS
I call Zeus to witness, that you swore by the gods to return them to me.
STREPSIADES
Because at that time, by Zeus! Phidippides did not yet know the
irrefutable argument.
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PASIAS
Would you deny the debt on that account?
STREPSIADES
If not, what use is his science to me?
PASIAS
Will you dare to swear by the gods that you owe me nothing?
STREPSIADES
By which gods?
PASIAS
By Zeus, Hermes and Posidon!
STREPSIADES
Why, I would give three obols for the pleasure of swearing by them.
PASIAS
Woe upon you, impudent knave!
STREPSIADES
Oh! what a fine wine-skin you would make if flayed!
PASIAS
Heaven! he jeers at me!
STREPSIADES
It would hold six gallons easily.
PASIAS
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By great Zeus! by all the gods! you shall not scoff at me with impunity,
STREPSIADES
Ah! how you amuse me with your gods! how ridiculous it seems to a
sage to hear Zeus invoked.
PASIAS
Your blasphemies will one day meet their reward. But, come, will you
repay me my money, yes or no? Answer me, that I may go.
STREPSIADES
Wait a moment, I am going to give you a distinct answer. (He goes
indoors and returns immediately with a kneading-trough.)
PASIAS
(to the WITNESS) What do you think he will do? Do you think he will
pay?
STREPSIADES
Where is the man who demands money? Tell me, what is this?
PASIAS
Him? Why, he is your kneading-trough.
STREPSIADES
And you dare to demand money of me, when you are so ignorant? I will
not return an obolus to anyone who says him instead of her for a
kneading-trough.
PASIAS
You will not repay?
STREPSIADES
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Not if I know it. Come, an end to this, pack off as quick as you can.
PASIAS
I go, but, may I die, if it be not to pay my deposit for a summons. (Exit)
STREPSIADES
Very well! It will be so much more loss to add to the twelve minae. But
truly it makes me sad, for I do pity a poor simpleton who says him for a
kneading-trough (Another creditor arrives.)
AMYNIAS
Woe! ah woe is me!
STREPSIADES
Wait! who is this whining fellow? Can it be one of the gods of Carcinus?
AMYNIAS
Do you want to know who I am? I am a man of misfortune!
STREPSIADES
Get on your way then.
AMYNIAS
(in tragic style) Oh! cruel god! Oh Fate, who hast broken the wheels of
my chariot! Oh, Pallas, thou hast undone me!
STREPSIADES
What ill has Tlepolemus done you?
AMYNIAS
Instead of jeering me, friend, make your son return me the money he has
had of me; I am already unfortunate enough.
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STREPSIADES
What money?
AMYNIAS
The money he borrowed of me.
STREPSIADES
You have indeed had misfortune, it seems to me.
AMYNIAS
Yes, by the gods! I have been thrown from a chariot.
STREPSIADES
Why then drivel as if you had fallen off an ass?
AMYNIAS
Am I drivelling because I demand my money?
STREPSIADES
No, no, you cannot be in your right senses.
AMYNIAS
Why?
STREPSIADES
No doubt your poor wits have had a shake.
AMYNIAS
But by Hermes! I will sue you at law, if you do not pay me.
STREPSIADES
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Just tell me; do you think it is always fresh water that Zeus lets fall
every time it rains, or is ill always the same water that the sun pumps
over the earth?
AMYNIAS
I neither know, nor care.
STREPSIADES
And actually you would claim the right to demand your money, when
you know not an iota of these celestial phenomena?
AMYNIAS
If you are short, pay me the interest anyway.
STREPSIADES
What kind of animal is interest?
AMYNIAS
What? Does not the sum borrowed go on growing, growing every
month, each day as the time slips by?
STREPSIADES
Well put. But do you believe there is more water in the sea now than
there was formerly?
AMYNIAS
No, it's just the same quantity. It cannot increase.
STREPSIADES
Thus, poor fool, the sea, that receives the rivers, never grows, and yet
you would have your money grow? Get you gone, away with you,
quick! Slave! bring me the ox-goad!
AMYNIAS
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I have witnesses to this.
STREPSIADES
Come, what are you waiting for? Will you not budge, old nag!
AMYNIAS
What an insult!
STREPSIADES
Unless you start trotting, I shall catch you and stick this in your arse, you
sorry packhorse! (AMYNIAS runs off.) Ah! you start, do you? I was
about to drive you pretty fast, I tell you-you and your wheels and your
chariot! (He enters his house.)
CHORUS
(singing) Whither does the passion of evil lead! here is a perverse old
man, who wants to cheat his creditors; but some mishap, which will
speedily punish this rogue for his shameful schemings, cannot fail to
overtake him from to-day. For a long time he has been burning to have
his son know how to fight against all justice and right and to gain even
the most iniquitous causes against his adversaries every one. I think this
wish is going to be fulfilled. But mayhap, mayhap, will he soon wish his
son were dumb rather!
STREPSIADES
(rushing out With PHIDIPPIDES after him) Oh! oh! neighbours,
kinsmen, fellow-citizens, help! help! to the rescue, I am being beaten!
Oh! my head! oh! my jaw! Scoundrel! Do you beat your own father?
PHIDIPPIDES
(calmly) Yes, father, I do.CLOUDS Critical Summary Assignment
STREPSIADES
See! he admits he is beating me.
PHIDIPPIDES
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Of course I do.
STREPSIADES
You villain, you parricide, you gallows-bird!
PHIDIPPIDES
Go on, repeat your epithets, call me a thousand other names, if it please
you. The more you curse, the greater my amusement!
STREPSIADES
Oh! you ditch-arsed cynic!
PHIDIPPIDES
How fragrant the perfume breathed forth in your words.
STREPSIADES
Do you beat your own father?
PHIDIPPIDES
Yes, by Zeus! and I am going to show you that I do right in beating you.
STREPSIADES
Oh, wretch! can it be right to beat a father?
PHIDIPPIDES
I will prove it to you, and you shall own yourself vanquished.
STREPSIADES
Own myself vanquished on a point like this?
PHIDIPPIDES
It's the easiest thing in the world. Choose whichever of the two
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reasonings you like.
STREPSIADES
Of which reasonings?
PHIDIPPIDES
The Stronger and the Weaker.
STREPSIADES
Miserable fellow! Why, I am the one who had you taught how to refute
what is right. and now you would persuade me it is right a son should
beat his father.
PHIDIPPIDES
I think I shall convince you so thoroughly that, when you have heard
me, you will not have a word to say.
STREPSIADES
Well, I am curious to hear what you have to say.
CHORUS
(singing) Consider well, old man, how you can best triumph over him.
His brazenness shows me that he thinks himself sure of his case; he has
some argument which gives him nerve. Note the confidence in his look!
LEADER OF THE CHORUS
But how did the fight begin? tell the Chorus; you cannot help doing that
much.
STREPSIADES
I will tell you what was the start of the quarrel. At the end of the meal,
as you know, I bade him take his lyre and sing me the air of Simonides,
which tells of the fleece of the ram. He replied bluntly, that it was stupid,
while drinking, to play the lyre and sing, like a woman when she is
grinding barley.
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PHIDIPPIDES
Why, by rights I ought to have beaten and kicked you the very moment
you told me to sing.CLOUDS Critical Summary Assignment
STREPSIADES
That is just how he spoke to me in the house, furthermore he added, that
Simonides was a detestable poet. However, I mastered myself and for a
while said nothing. Then I said to him, 'At least, take a myrtle branch
and recite a passage from Aeschylus to me.'-'For my own part,' he at
once replied, 'I look upon Aeschylus as the first of poets, for his verses
roll superbly; they're nothing but incoherence, bombast and turgidity.'
Yet still I smothered my wrath and said, 'Then recite one of the famous
pieces from the modern poets.' Then he commenced a piece in which
Euripides shows, oh! horror! a brother, who violates his own uterine
sister. Then I could not longer restrain myself, and attacked him with the
most injurious abuse; naturally he retorted; hard words were hurled on
both sides, and finally he sprang at me, broke my bones, bore me to
earth, strangled and started killing me!
PHIDIPPIDES
I was right. What! not praise Euripides, the greatest of our poets?
STREPSIADES
He the greatest of our poets? Ah! if I but dared to speak! but the blows
would rain upon me harder than ever.
PHIDIPPIDES
Undoubtedly and rightly too.
STREPSIADES
Rightly! Oh! what impudence! to me, who brought you up! when you
could hardly lisp, I guessed what you wanted. If you said broo, broo,
well, I brought you your milk; if you asked for mam mam, I gave you
bread; and you had no sooner said, caca, than I took you outside and
held you out. And just now, when you were strangling me, I shouted, I
bellowed that I was about to crap; and you, you scoundrel, had not the
heart to take me outside, so that, though almost choking, I was
compelled to do my crapping right there.
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CHORUS
(singing) Young men, your hearts must be panting with impatience.
What is Phidippides going to say? If, after such conduct, he proves he
has done well, I would not give an obolus for the hide of old men.
LEADER OF THE CHORUS
Come, you, who know how to brandish and hurl the keen shafts of the
new science, find a way to convince us, give your language an
appearance of truth.
PHIDIPPIDES
How pleasant it is to know these clever new inventions and to be able to
defy the established laws! When I thought only about horses, I was not
able to string three words together without a mistake, but now that the
master has altered and improved me and that I live in this world of
subtle thought, of reasoning and of meditation, I count on being able to
prove satisfactorily that I have done well to thrash my father.
STREPSIADES
Mount your horse! By Zeus! I would rather defray the keep of a four-inhand
team than be battered with blows.
PHIDIPPIDES
I revert to what I was saying when you interrupted me. And first, answer
me, did you beat me in my childhood?
STREPSIADES
Why, assuredly, for your good and in your own best interest.
PHIDIPPIDES
Tell me, is it not right, that in turn I should beat you for your good, since
it is for a man's own best interest to be beaten? What! must your body be
free of blows, and not mine? am I not free-born too? the children are to
weep and the fathers go free? You will tell me, that according to the law,
it is the lot of children to be beaten. But I reply that the old men are
children twice over and that it is far more fitting to chastise them than
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the young, for there is less excuse for their faults.CLOUDS Critical Summary Assignment
STREPSIADES
But the law nowhere admits that fathers should be treated thus.
PHIDIPPIDES
Was not the legislator who carried this law a man like you and me? In
those days be got men to believe him; then why should not I too have
the right to establish for the future a new law, allowing children to beat
their fathers in turn? We make you a present of all the blows which were
received before his law, and admit that you thrashed us with impunity.
But look how the cocks and other animals fight with their fathers; and
yet what difference is there betwixt them and ourselves, unless it be that
they do not propose decrees?
STREPSIADES
But if you imitate the cocks in all things, why don't you scratch up the
dunghill, why don't you sleep on a perch?
PHIDIPPIDES
That has no bearing on the case, good sir; Socrates would find no
connection, I assure you.
STREPSIADES
Then do not beat at all, for otherwise you have only yourself to blame
afterwards.
PHIDIPPIDES
What for?
STREPSIADES
I have the right to chastise you, and you to chastise your son, if you have
one.
PHIDIPPIDES
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And if I have not, I shall have cried in vain, and you will die laughing in
my face.
STREPSIADES
What say you, all here present? It seems to me that he is right, and I am
of opinion that they should be accorded their right. If we think wrongly,
it is but just we should be beaten.
PHIDIPPIDES
Again, consider this other point.
STREPSIADES
It will be the death of me.
PHIDIPPIDES
But you will certainly feel no more anger because of the blows I have
given you.
STREPSIADES
Come, show me what profit I shall gain from it.
PHIDIPPIDES
I shall beat my mother just as I have you.
STREPSIADES
What do you say? what's that you say? Hah! this is far worse still.
PHIDIPPIDES
And what if I prove to you by our school reasoning, that one ought to
beat one's mother?
STREPSIADES
Ah! if you do that, then you will only have to throw yourself, along with
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Socrates and his reasoning, into the Barathrum. Oh! Clouds! all our
troubles emanate from you, from you, to whom I entrusted myself, body
and soul.
LEADER OF THE CHORUS
No, you alone are the cause, because you have pursued the path of evil.
STREPSIADES
Why did you not say so then, instead of egging on a poor ignorant old
man?
LEADER OF THE CHORUS
We always act thus, when we see a man conceive a passion for what is
evil; we strike himCLOUDS Critical Summary Assignment with some terrible disgrace, so that he may learn to
fear the gods.
STREPSIADES
Alas! oh Clouds! that's hard indeed, but it's just! I ought not to have
cheated my creditors....But come, my dear son, come with me to take
vengeance on this wretched Chaerephon and on Socrates, who have
deceived us both.
PHIDIPPIDES
I shall do nothing against our masters.
STREPSIADES
Oh show some reverence for ancestral Zeus!
PHIDIPPIDES
Mark him and his ancestral Zeus! What a fool you are! Does any such
being as Zeus exist?
STREPSIADES
Why, assuredly.
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PHIDIPPIDES
No, a thousand times no! The ruler of the world is the Whirlwind, that
has unseated Zeus.
STREPSIADES
He has not dethroned him. I believed it, because of this whirligig here.
Unhappy wretch that I am! I have taken a piece of clay to be a god.
PHIDIPPIDES
Very well! Keep your stupid nonsense for your own consumption. (He
goes back into STREPSIADES' house.)
STREPSIADES
Oh! what madness! I had lost my reason when I threw over the gods
through Socrates' seductive phrases. (Addressing the statue of Hermes)
Oh! good Hermes, do not destroy me in your wrath. Forgive me; their
babbling had driven me crazy. Be my counselor. Shall I pursue them at
law or shall I....? Order and I obey.-You are right, no law-suit; but up! let
us burn down the home of those praters. Here, Xanthias, here! take a
ladder, come forth and arm yourself with an axe; now mount upon the
Thoughtery, demolish the roof, if you love your master, and may the
house fall in upon them. Ho! bring me a blazing torch! There is more
than one of them, arch-impostors as they are, on whom I am determined
to have vengeance.CLOUDS Critical Summary Assignment
A DISCIPLE
(from within) Oh! oh!
STREPSIADES
Come, torch, do your duty! Burst into full flame!
DISCIPLE
What are you up to?
STREPSIADES
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What am I up to? Why, I am entering upon a subtle argument with the
beams of the house.
SECOND DISCIPLE
(from within) Hullo! hullo who is burning down our house?
STREPSIADES
The man whose cloak you have appropriated.
SECOND DISCIPLE
You are killing us!
STREPSIADES
That is just exactly what I hope, unless my axe plays me false, or I fall
and break my neck.
SOCRATES
(appearing at the window) Hi! you fellow on the roof, what are you
doing up there?
STREPSIADES
(mocking SOCRATES' manner) I am traversing the air and
contemplating the sun.
SOCRATES
Ah! ah! woe is upon me! I am suffocating!
SECOND DISCIPLE
And I, alas, shall be burnt up!
STREPSIADES
Ah! you insulted the gods! You studied the face of the moon! Chase
them, strike and beat them down! Forward! they have richly deserved
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their fate-above all, by reason of their blasphemies.
LEADER OF THE CHORUS
So let the Chorus file off the stage. Its part is played.
THE END ---------------------------------------------------------------------- Copyright
statement: The Internet Classics Archive by Daniel C. Stevenson, Web Atomics.
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Direct permission requests to classics@classics.mit.edu. Translation of "The Deeds
of the Divine Augustus" by Augustus is copyright (C) Thomas Bushnell, BSG.
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