Community/Public Health Essay Assignment

Community/Public Health Essay Assignment

Read chapter 1, 2 & 6 of the class textbook and review the attached PowerPoint presentations once done answer the following questions.

1. Compare and contrast definitions of health from a public health nursing perspective.

2. Explain the difference between public/community health nursing practice and community-based nursing practice.

3. Discuss major contemporary issues facing community/public health nursing and trace the historical roots to the present.

4. Discuss and explain the steps to identified/diagnosed community health problems.Community/Public Health Essay Assignment

BUY A PLAGIARISM-FREE PAPER HERE

As stated in the syllabus please present your assignment in an APA format word document, Arial 12 font attached to the forum in the discussion board name "Week 1 discussion questions".  A minimum of 2 evidence-based references is required (not counting the class textbook) no older than 5 years.  A minimum of replies to any of your peers are required sustained with the proper references.

Note: More than 500 words.

Community/Public Health Nursing …

… is the synthesis of nursing practice and public health practice.

… has the major goal to preserve the health of the community and surrounding populations.

… focuses on health promotion and health maintenance.

… is associated with health and identification of populations at risk rather than an episodic response to patient demand.

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

2

Nies: Power Points, Evolve Resources for Nies/McEwen: Community Health Nursing, 4th ed.

2

The mission of public health is …Community/Public Health Essay Assignment

… social justice, which entitles all people to basic necessities such as adequate income and health protection and accepts collective burdens to make this possible.

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

3

http://www.health.gov/phfunctions/public.htm

Nies: Power Points, Evolve Resources for Nies/McEwen: Community Health Nursing, 4th ed.

3

How Do We Define Health?

A state of complete well-being, physical, social, and mental, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.

– World Health Organization, 1958

The extent to which an individual or group is able, on the one hand, to realize aspirations and satisfy needs; and, on the other hand, to change or cope with the environment. Health is, therefore, seen as a resource for everyday life, not the objective of living; it is a positive concept emphasizing social and personal resources, and physical capacities.Community/Public Health Essay Assignment

– World Health Organization, 1986

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

4

Nies: Power Points, Evolve Resources for Nies/McEwen: Community Health Nursing, 4th ed.

4

Community …

… a group or collection of locality-based individuals, interacting in social units and sharing common interests, characteristics, values, and/or goals.

Nies and McEwen, 2013

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

5

Nies: Power Points, Evolve Resources for Nies/McEwen: Community Health Nursing, 4th ed.

5

Figure 1-2

From U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Federal Interagency Workgroup: The vision, mission, and goals of Healthy People 2020. http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/Consortium/HP2020Framework.pdf. Accessed July 2013.

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

6

Nies: Power Points, Evolve Resources for Nies/McEwen: Community Health Nursing, 4th ed.

6

Healthy People 2020 Leading Health Indicators

Access to Health Services

Clinical Preventive Services

Environmental Quality

Injury and Violence

Maternal, Infant, and Child Health

Mental Health

Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity

Oral Health

Reproductive and Sexual Health

Social Determinants

Substance Abuse

Tobacco Use

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

7

Community/Public Health Essay Assignment

Nies: Power Points, Evolve Resources for Nies/McEwen: Community Health Nursing, 4th ed.

7

Public and Community Health

Public health is the Science and Art of …

(1) preventing disease,

(2) prolonging life, and

(3) promoting health and efficiency through organized community effort…

C.E. Winslow…

Community health extends the realm of public health …

…to include organized health efforts at the community level through both government and private efforts.

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

8

Core Public Health Functions

Assessment: Regular collection, analysis, and information sharing about health conditions, risks, and resources in a community.

Policy development: Use of information gathered during assessment to develop local and state health policies and to direct resources toward those policies.

Assurance: Focuses on the availability of necessary heath services throughout the community. It includes maintaining the ability of both public health agencies and private providers to manage day-to-day operations and the capacity to respond to critical situations and emergencies.Community/Public Health Essay Assignment

– Institute of Medicine (1988)

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

9

Nies: Power Points, Evolve Resources for Nies/McEwen: Community Health Nursing, 4th ed.

9

10 Essential Services

Assessment

Monitor health status to identify community health problems.

Diagnose and investigate health problems and health hazards in the community.

Research for new insights and innovative solutions to health problems.

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

10

Nies: Power Points, Evolve Resources for Nies/McEwen: Community Health Nursing, 4th ed.

10

10 Essential Services (Cont.)

Policy Development

Inform, educate, and empower people about health issues.

Mobilize community partnerships to identify and solve health problems.

Develop policies and plans that support individual and community health efforts.

Research for new insights and innovative solutions to health problems.

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

11

Nies: Power Points, Evolve Resources for Nies/McEwen: Community Health Nursing, 4th ed.

11

10 Essential Services (Cont.)

Assurance

Enforce laws and regulations that protect health and ensure safety.

Link people to needed personal health services and ensure the provision of health care when otherwise unavailable.

Ensure a competent public health and personal health care workforce.Community/Public Health Essay Assignment

Evaluate effectiveness, accessibility, and quality of personal and population-based health services.

Research for new insights and innovative solutions to health problems.

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

12

Nies: Power Points, Evolve Resources for Nies/McEwen: Community Health Nursing, 4th ed.

12

The Three Levels of Prevention

Primary prevention

Prevention of problems before they occur

Health promotion and health protection

Secondary prevention

Early detection and intervention

Early diagnosis and treatment

Tertiary prevention

Correction and prevention of deterioration of a disease state

Limitation of disability and rehabilitation

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

13

Nies: Power Points, Evolve Resources for Nies/McEwen: Community Health Nursing, 4th ed.

13

The Three Levels of Prevention (Cont.)Community/Public Health Essay Assignment

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

14

Figure 1-2

Nies: Power Points, Evolve Resources for Nies/McEwen: Community Health Nursing, 4th ed.

14

Level of Prevention—Individual

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

15

Nies: Power Points, Evolve Resources for Nies/McEwen: Community Health Nursing, 4th ed.

15

Level of Prevention—Family

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

16

Nies: Power Points, Evolve Resources for Nies/McEwen: Community Health Nursing, 4th ed.

16

Level of Prevention—Group

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

17

Nies: Power Points, Evolve Resources for Nies/McEwen: Community Health Nursing, 4th ed.

17

Level of Prevention—Community

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

18

Nies: Power Points, Evolve Resources for Nies/McEwen: Community Health Nursing, 4th ed.

18

Healthy People 2020

Vision

A society in which all people live long, healthy lives.

Overarching Goals

Attain high-quality, longer lives free of preventable disease, disability, injury, and premature death.

Achieve health equity, eliminate disparities, and improve the health of all groups.

Create social and physical environments that promote good health for all.Community/Public Health Essay Assignment

Promote quality of life, healthy development, and healthy behaviors across all life stages.

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

19

Nies: Power Points, Evolve Resources for Nies/McEwen: Community Health Nursing, 4th ed.

19

Healthy People 2020 (Cont.)

HP2020 has 42 focus areas

The objectives and related information and materials can help guide health promotion activities and can be used to aid in community-wide initiatives.

(USDHHS, 2013)

All health care practitioners…

should focus on the relevant areas in their practice

incorporate objectives into programs, events, and publications whenever possible

use them as a framework to promote healthy cities and communities

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

20

Nies: Power Points, Evolve Resources for Nies/McEwen: Community Health Nursing, 4th ed.

20

Healthy People 2020 Topic Areas

Access to Quality Health Services

Adolescent Health New

Arthritis, Osteoporosis and Chronic Back Conditions

Blood Disorders and Blood Safety New

Cancer

Chronic Kidney Disease

Dementias, including Alzheimer’s Disease New

Diabetes

Disability and Secondary Conditions

Early and Middle Childhood

Educational and Community-based Programs

Environmental Health

Family Planning

Food Safety

Genomics New.Community/Public Health Essay Assignment

Global Health New

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

21

Nies: Power Points, Evolve Resources for Nies/McEwen: Community Health Nursing, 4th ed.

21

Healthy People 2020 Topic Areas (Cont.)

Health Communication and Health Information Technology

Healthcare-Associated Infections New

Health-Related Quality of Life and Well-Being New

Hearing and Other Sensory or Communication Disorders

Heart Disease and Stroke

HIV

Immunization and Infectious Diseases

Injury and Violence Prevention

Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender

Health New

Maternal, Infant, and Child Health

Medical Product Safety

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

22Community/Public Health Essay Assignment

Nies: Power Points, Evolve Resources for Nies/McEwen: Community Health Nursing, 4th ed.

22

Healthy People 2020 Topic Areas (Cont.)

Mental Health and Mental Disorders

Nutrition and Weight Status

Occupational Safety and Health

Older Health New

Oral Health

Physical Activity

Preparedness New

Public Health Infrastructure

Respiratory Disease

Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Sleep Health New

Social Determinants of Health New

Substance Abuse

Tobacco Use

Vision

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

23

Community/Public Health Essay Assignment

Nies: Power Points, Evolve Resources for Nies/McEwen: Community Health Nursing, 4th ed.

23

Public Health Nursing

ANA definition (2007)

The practice of promoting and protecting the health of populations

Uses knowledge from nursing, as well as social and public health sciences, to promote and protect the health of populations.

Is population focused, with the goals of promoting health and preventing disease and disability for all people

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

24

Nies: Power Points, Evolve Resources for Nies/McEwen: Community Health Nursing, 4th ed.

24

Community Health Nursing

ANA definition (1980)

Synthesis of nursing practice and public health to promote and preserve the health of populations

Care is directed to individuals, families, groups

Contributes to health of the total population

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

25Community/Public Health Essay Assignment

*The terms Public Health Nursing and Community Health Nursing are used interchangeably in Nies and McEwen, 6th edition.

Community-Based Nursing

“Application of the nursing process in caring for individuals, families and groups where they live, work or go to school or as they move through the health care system”

–McEwen and Pullis, 2009

Setting-specific

Emphasis is on acute and chronic care

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

26

Community and Public Health Nursing Practice

Nurses practice disease prevention and health promotion

Practice is collaborative

Practice is based on research and theory

Applies the nursing process to the care of…

Individuals

Families

Aggregates

The community

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

27

Community/Public Health Essay Assignment

Population-Focused Nursing

Focuses on the entire population

Is based on assessment of the population’s health status

Considers the broad determinants of health

Emphasizes all levels of prevention

Intervenes with communities, systems, individuals, and families

– Minnesota Department of Health, 2003

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

28

Nies: Power Points, Evolve Resources for Nies/McEwen: Community Health Nursing, 4th ed.

28

PHN Intervention Wheel

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

29

Figure 1-3

Illustration from Minnesota Dept. of Health Center for Public Health Nursing.

Is population based

Contains three levels of practice (individual, community, and system)

Identifies 17 public health interventions

Nies: Power Points, Evolve Resources for Nies/McEwen: Community Health Nursing, 4th ed.

29Community/Public Health Essay Assignment

Public Health Interventions (purple section)

Surveillance: Describes and monitors health events through ongoing and systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of health data for the purpose of planning, implementing, and evaluating public health interventions.

Disease and other health event investigation: Systematically gathers and analyzes data regarding threats to the health of populations, ascertains the source of the threat, identifies cases and others at risk, and determines control measures.

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

30

Nies: Power Points, Evolve Resources for Nies/McEwen: Community Health Nursing, 4th ed.

30

Public Health Interventions (purple section) (Cont.)

Outreach: Locates populations of interest or populations at risk and provides information about the nature of the concern, what can be done about it, and how services can be obtained.

Screening: Identifies individuals with unrecognized health risk factors or asymptomatic disease conditions in populations.

Case finding: Locates individuals and families with identified risk factors and connects them with resources.

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

31

Community/Public Health Essay Assignment

Nies: Power Points, Evolve Resources for Nies/McEwen: Community Health Nursing, 4th ed.

31

Public Health Interventions (green section)

Referral and follow-up: Helps individuals, families, groups, organizations, and/or communities identify and access necessary resources to prevent or resolve problems or concerns.

Case management: Optimizes self-care capabilities of individuals and families and the capacity of systems and communities to coordinate and provide services.

Delegated functions: Direct care tasks a registered professional nurse carries out under the authority of a health care practitioner as allowed by law.

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

32

Nies: Power Points, Evolve Resources for Nies/McEwen: Community Health Nursing, 4th ed.

32

Public Health Interventions (blue section)

Health teaching: Communicates facts, ideas, and skills that change knowledge, attitudes, values, beliefs, behaviors, and practices of individuals, families, systems, and/or communities.

Counseling: Establishes an interpersonal relationship intended to increase or enhance capacity for self-care and coping with a community, system, and family or individual.

Consultation: Seeks information and generates optional solutions to perceived problems or issues through interactive problem-solving with a community, system, and family or individual.

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

33

Community/Public Health Essay Assignment

Nies: Power Points, Evolve Resources for Nies/McEwen: Community Health Nursing, 4th ed.

33

Public Health Interventions (red section)

Collaboration: Commits two or more persons or organizations to achieve a common goal through enhancing the capacity of one or more of the members to promote and protect health.

Coalition building: Promotes and develops alliances among organizations or constituencies for a common purpose.

Community organizing: Helps community groups identify common problems or goals, mobilize resources, and develop and implement strategies for reaching the goals they collectively have set.

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

34

Community/Public Health Essay Assignment

Nies: Power Points, Evolve Resources for Nies/McEwen: Community Health Nursing, 4th ed.

34

Public Health Interventions (yellow section)

Advocacy: Plead someone’s cause or act on someone’s behalf, with focus on developing the capacity of the community, system, and individual or family to plead their own cause or act on their own behalf.

Social marketing: Uses commercial marketing principles and technologies for programs designed to influence the knowledge, attitudes, values, beliefs, behaviors, and practices of the population of interest.

Policy development and enforcement: Places health issues on decision-makers’ agendas, acquires a plan of resolution, and determines needed resources, resulting in laws, rules, regulations, ordinances, and policies. Policy enforcement compels others to comply with laws, rules, regulations, ordinances, and policies.

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

35

Nies: Power Points, Evolve Resources for Nies/McEwen: Community Health Nursing, 4th ed.

35

Providing population-based care… a shift in thinking

Populations are not homogeneous; must address the needs of special subpopulations.

High-risk and vulnerable subpopulations must be identified early in the care delivery cycle.

Nonusers of services often become high-cost users; essential to develop outreach strategies.

Quality and cost of all health care services are linked together across the health care continuum.

(Kaiser Family Foundation, 2013)Community/Public Health Essay Assignment

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

Chapter 2

Historical Factors: Community Health Nursing in Context

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

Stages* in the Disease History of Humankind

Hunting and gathering (before 10,000 B.C.)

Settled villages (10,000 to 6000 B.C.)

Preindustrial cities (6000 B.C. to 1800 A.D.)

Industrial cities (1700 to 1800 A.D.)

Present period (1900 to 2000 A.D.)

*Stages overlap and time periods are widely debated in the field of anthropology. Some form of each stage remains evident in the world today.

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

2

Community/Public Health Essay Assignment

Aggregate Impact on Health

Increased population

Increased population density

Imbalanced human ecology

Resulted in changes in cultural adaptation

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

3

Evolution of Early Public Health Efforts

Prerecorded historic times (before 5000 B.C.)

Practices based on superstition or sanitation

Health practices evolved to ensure survival

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

4

Evolution of Early Public Health Efforts (Cont.)

Classical times (3000 to 200 B.C.)

Devised ways to flush water; constructed drainage systems

Developed pharmaceutical preparations

Embalmed the dead

Dealt with pollution

Hygienic code to protect food and water

Greek and Roman impact public health

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

5

Community/Public Health Essay Assignment

Evolution of Early Public Health Efforts (Cont.)

Greeks

Literature contains accounts of communicable diseases

Endemic, epidemic, and pandemic

Hippocratic book on Airs, Waters and Places

Hygeia, goddess of health, or good living

Panacea, goddess of curative medicine

Balance of human life with environmental demands

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

6

Disease Definitions

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

7

Disease Definitions
Endemic Diseases that are always present in a population (e.g., colds and pneumonia).
Epidemic Diseases that are not always present in a population but flare up on occasion (e.g., diphtheria and measles).
Pandemic The existence of disease in a large proportion of the population—a global epidemic (e.g., HIV, AIDS, and annual outbreaks of influenza type A).
Community/Public Health Essay Assignment

Evolution of Early Public Health Efforts (Cont.)

Romans

Surpassed Greek engineering

Massive aqueducts, bathhouses, and sewer systems

Addressed occupational health threats

Priests mediated diseases and dispensed medicine

Public physicians worked in designated towns

Worked in groups much like today’s HMOs

Eared money to care for the poor

Hospital for sick poor established by Fabiola, a Christian woman

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

8

Community/Public Health Essay Assignment

Evolution of Early Public Health Efforts (Cont.)

Middle Ages (500 to 1500 A.D.)

Monasteries promoted collective activity to protect public health.

Churches enforced hygienic codes.

A pandemic ravaged the world in the 14th century.

Modern public health practices (e.g., isolation, disinfection, quarantines) emerged.

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

9

Community/Public Health Essay Assignment

Evolution of Early Public Health Efforts (Cont.)

Renaissance (15th, 16th, 17th centuries)

A theory about the cause of infection evolved.

Leeuwenhoek described microscopic organisms.

Elizabethan Poor Laws were enacted.

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

10

Evolution of Early Public Health Efforts (Cont.)

18th century

The Industrial Revolution occurred.

Poor children were forced into labor.

Vaccination was discovered by Edward Jenner.

Sanitary Revolution’s public health reforms were taking place.

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

11

Community/Public Health Essay Assignment

Evolution of Early Public Health Efforts (Cont.)

19th century

Communicable diseases ravaged the population that lived in unsanitary conditions.

Edwin Chadwick examined death rates by occupation and class in England.

The General Board of Health for England was established in 1848.

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

12

Evolution of Early Public Health Efforts (Cont.)

19th century (Cont.)

Public health laws were enacted in 1849:

Healthy mental and physical development of citizens

Prevention of all dangers to health

Control of disease

John Snow demonstrated the transmission of cholera via the public water source.

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

13

Community/Public Health Essay Assignment

Evolution of Early Public Health Efforts (Cont.)

19th century (Cont.)

Waves of epidemics occurred in the United States.

Lemuel Shattuck published vital statistics in Massachusetts; he called for child health reform.

The first Board of Health was formed in response.

The AMA was asked to collected vital statistics.

Efforts focused on determinants of health.

The advent of “modern” health care occurred.

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

14

Florence Nightingale (1820-1910)

Credited with establishing “modern nursing”

Concern for environmental determinants of health

Emphasis on sanitation, community assessment, and analysis

Use of graphically depicted statistics and comparable census data

Political advocate

Education reform for nurses

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

15

Figure 2-2

Public domain; courtesy University of Chicago Library.

Community/Public Health Essay Assignment

Impact of Important Scientists

Louis Pasteur

Theory of existence of germs

Discovered immunizations in 1881 and the rabies vaccine in 1885

Robert Koch

Discovered causative agent for cholera and the tubercle bacillus in 1882

Joseph Lister

Surgical success with wound care

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

16

“Modern” Medical Care

Emergence of germ theory focused diagnosis and treatment on individual organism and individual disease.

Community outcry for social reforms forced governments to take action.

Boards of health and health departments began in 1866.

TB surveillance began in 1889.

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

17

Community/Public Health Essay Assignment

“Modern” Medical Care (Cont.)

Flexner Report (1910) outlined shortcomings of U.S. medical schools.

Philanthropic foundations influenced health care efforts.

1916: Rockefeller Foundation established first school of public health at Johns Hopkins.

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

18

Community Caregiver

Traditional healer common in non-Western, ancient, and primitive societies.

Societies retain folk practices because of their success.

Folk healing practices are socially cohesive and involve support systems.

Although often overlooked, cultural practices affect health.

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

19

Establishment of Public Health Nursing

In England

District Nursing in England, 1850s

Rathbone worked with Nightingale to educate “health nurses,” 1859

Health Visiting in Manchester, England, 1862

In the United States

Visiting Nurses, 1877

Henry Street Settlement, 1893

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

20

Community/Public Health Essay Assignment

Lillian Wald (1867-1940)

Established Henry Street Settlement in 1893 (along with Mary Brewster)

Played an important role in establishing public health nursing in the United States—later called “Visiting Nurses Association of NYC”

Role of Henry Street Settlement was “one of helping people to help themselves” (Wald, 1871)

The Children’s Bureau and the Social Security Act Legislation formed as a result of these efforts

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

21

Community/Public Health Essay Assignment

Other Key Dates in the Establishment of PH Nursing

First School Nurse, Linda Rogers, 1902

Metropolitan Life Insurance Company provided home nurses for policyholders, 1909

Department of Nursing and Health at Teachers’ College of Columbia University in NYC, 1910

National Organization of Public Health Nurses formed, 1912 (Lillian Wald was first president)

Public Health Service appointed its first public health nurse, 1913

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

22

Community/Public Health Essay Assignment

Changing Perspectives on Mortality in the 20th Century and Beyond

Change from infectious diseases to chronic conditions

Modern medical advances (vaccination programs and antibiotics)

Holistic approach to health

Better sanitation and nutrition

Grecian Hygeia (i.e., healthful living) vs. Panacea (i.e., cure) dichotomy

Multi-causal, not uni-causal, view of disease

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

23

Challenges for Community Health Nursing

Promote the health of populations

Need a broadened focus on the multiple causes of morbidity and mortality

Aware of increased technological advances

Understand the community need for a focus on prevention, health promotion, and home care

Focus on holistic care

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

24

Community/Public Health Essay Assignment

Challenges for Community Health Nursing (Cont.)

Emphasis on population-based focus nursing

Work on behalf of aggregates

Understand social determinants of health

Gather information and statistics to make decisions

Be part of the solution to find ways to solve persistent health problems

Emphasize society’s responsibility for health

Empower people to help themselves

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

Community/Public Health Essay Assignment