Complete Research Proposal Assignment Paper.

Complete Research Proposal Assignment Paper.

Outline of research proposal was reviewed by the professor and she made comments so that the things that were wrong can be addressed on the Complete Research Proposal.

Please, read "Professor's Comment" document to make the changes specified by the professor ( read comments on document) Complete Research Proposal Assignment Paper.

Also, read "Outline of Complete Research" in order to create the Complete Research Proposal Assignment Paper.

Remember to only utilize the links included on the previous stages of the research paper which are also inside this documents. Complete Research Proposal Assignment Paper.

4. Research Proposal
Stage 4: Complete Research Proposal
Take your approved outline, and use it to develop a full APA-style research proposal. Please keep in mind how important it is to use course terms (e.g., statistic, sample, research, and theory, variable) correctly, to demonstrate critical thinking in your selection and synthesis of relevant research articles, and to follow directions and use APA style precisely. It is vital to your success in this assignment that you are directly and thoroughly responsive to all feedback given to date.
Format:
Follow APA style precisely. Include all required elements (listed above) in the order listed above.

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Contents:

Cover sheet
Abstract (150–200 words)
Key words (5–7 key terms)
Introduction section (1–2 pages)
Introduce the topic, establishing its context
Justify the significance of studying the topic
State your research question and hypothesis. Complete Research Proposal Assignment Paper.
Identify and briefly describe the proposed research design
Provide a “roadmap” of the rest of the paper
Literature Review section (3–7 pages of text)
Start with the level-1 APA-style heading “Literature Review”
Provide an introductory paragraph for the section
Include a level-2 APA-style subheading “Existing Research”
Summarize your five research articles topic by topic rather than study by study, covering these six topics for each article
Research question(s)/hypothesis (or hypotheses)
Theoretical framework/orientation
Research design
Sampling
Independent and dependent variable measurement
Key findings
Include a level-2 APA-style subheading “Summary of the Existing Research”
Synthesize the five studies in such a way as to lead logically to your hypothesis and research design in the next section.
Methodology section (3-6 pages)
Start with the level-1 APA-heading “Methodology”
Drawing from your literature review, articulate the hypothesis to be tested in your research proposal
Identify and describe the research design you will use to test your hypothesis, and explain why this research design is the most appropriate. Research designs options include experiment, survey, and content analysis.
Include a level-2 APA-style subheading “Sampling”
Propose an appropriate, specific sampling design
Identify your population
Identify your unit of analysis
Specify your targeted sample size
Include a level-2 APA-style subheading “Measurements”
Provide an introductory paragraph to this subsection
Include a level-3 APA-style subheading “Dependent variable”
Specify the name of your key dependent variable
Identify its categories and codes
Include a level-3 APA-style subheading “Independent variable”
Specify the name of your key independent variable
Identify its categories and codes
Include a level-3 APA-style subheading “Control variables”
One at a time, specify the name of at least two logical control variables
In the same order, identify their categories and codes
Include a level-2 APA-style subheading “Limitations”; cover causality, validity, reliability, and ethics
Discuss the prsed study’s potential strengths in at least one paragraph
Discuss the proposed study’s potential weaknesses in at least one paragraph
References.

Stage 1: Topic Proposal with First Source

Propose the topic for your research proposal. It must be unquestionably criminological, be explanatory, be policy-oriented (i.e., evaluation research), lend itself to hypothesizing and empirical investigation, allow you to address directly all of these assignment requirements. Using complete sentences—along with proper grammar, spelling, and punctuation—and answer the following questions in the order they are asked below. Number each new question. (Question 9 does not require a complete-sentence response.)
1-What is your general topic? What is your proposed unit of analysis?
The topic I have suggested for my research proposal is Race in relation to crime. My purpose will be to define whether there is a relationship to why crimes occur by comparing crime rates between different races. Does one race tend to commit more crimes than the other? and if so Why ? I plan on utilizing "Race" as the independent variable and "crime" as the dependent one
2-What explanatory, policy-oriented research question would you ask to get started on this topic? For example, “Does drug education reduce juvenile drug use?”
Is there a relationship between race and the commission of crimes?
3- What will be your independent variable?
Independent variable: Race
4-What will be your dependent variable?
Dependent variable: Crime
5-What would be your first source for your literature review? Provide a working hyperlink to the research article along with the full APA-style Reference-list entry for it.
First source for literature review:
Butler, P. (2010). One Hundred Years of Race and Crime. Retrieved July 9, 2018, from https://scholarlycommons.law.northwestern.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=&httpsredir=1&article=7368&context=jclc
6- Provide a Justified Sampling Process for your proposal
I will use the Stratified Sampling process because I will narrow down my population into different groups among races.

Stage 2: Hypothesis with 5 Articles and References List

1-State your explanatory Hypothesis. (Professor mentioned I needed to come up with a better hypothesis than this one below)
Explanatory Hypothesis: African Americans commit crimes at a higher rate per capita than Whites do
2- Provide a working hyperlink to your first research article
Working hyperlink 1: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/480250/bulletin.pdf
3- Provide a working hyperlink to your second research article
Working hyperlink 2: https://www.realclearpolicy.com/articles/2017/02/16/race_and_rising_violent_crime.html
4- Provide a working hyperlink to your third research article.
Working hyperlink 3:
https://www.encyclopedia.com/law/legal-and-political-magazines/race-and-crime
5- Provide a working hyperlink to your fourth research article.
Working hyperlink 4:
http://www.unz.com/runz/race-and-crime-in-america/
6-Provide a working hyperlink to your fifth research article.
Working Hyperlink 6:
https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/pager/files/ajs_quillianpager.pdf
7- Provide your complete APA-style References list.
Cherry R (February 16, 2017) Race and Rising Violent Crime. Retrieved July 23, 2018 from https://www.realclearpolicy.com/articles/2017/02/16/race_and_rising_violent_crime.html
Encyclopedia of Crime and Justice "Race and Crime” Retrieved July 23, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/law/legal-and-political-magazines/race-and-crime
Ministry of Justice (2015) Statistics on Race and the Criminal Justice System 2014. Retrieved July 23, 2018, from https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/480250/bulletin.pdf
Quillian L. & Pager Devah (2001) Black Neighbors, Higher Crime? The role of Racial Stereotypes in Evaluations of Neighborhood Crime. Retrieved from https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/pager/files/ajs_quillianpager.pdf
Unz, R., Kersey, P., Reed, F., Taylor, J., Cathey, B. D., & Derbyshire, J. (July 20, 2013). Race and Crime in America. Retrieved July 23, 2018, from http://www.unz.com/runz/race-and-crime-in-america/

Stage 3: Outline of Complete Research Proposal

Provide a detailed sentence outline of the complete research proposal (Instructions on separate document). Treat your hypothesis as the thesis statement. Include APA-style in-text citations throughout
Format: Include a heading in the upper left margin of the first page containing: your first and last name, the semester and year, and the name of the assignment. Double space, with 1-inch margins, left-aligned text, and 12-point Times New Roman font throughout. Number all pages, including the first one, and set the page numbers in Times New Roman.

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Contents:
Introduction section
a.       Introduce the topic, establishing its context
b.      Justify the significance of studying the topic
c.       State your research question and hypothesis
d.      Identify and briefly describe the proposed research design
e.      Provide a “roadmap” of the rest of the paper
2. Literature Review section, titled “Literature Review”
Provide an introductory paragraph for the section
Subsection titled “Existing Research”
Summarize your five research articles topic by topic rather than study by study, covering these six topics for each article
i.      Research question(s)/hypothesis (or hypotheses)
ii.      Theoretical framework/orientation
iii.      Research design
iv.      Sampling
v.      Independent and dependent variable measurement
vi.      Key findings
Subsection titled “Summary of the Existing Research”
Synthesize the five studies in such a way as to lead logically to your (a) hypothesis and (b) research design in the next section.
3. Methodology section, titled “Methodology”
Drawing from your literature review, articulate the hypothesis to be tested in your research proposal
Drawing from your literature review, identify and describe the research design you will use to test your hypothesis, and explain why this research design is the most appropriate.Complete Research Proposal Assignment Paper. Research designs options include: experiment, survey, or content analysis. Check with the professor if you would like to propose a different research design.
Subsection titled “Sampling”
i.      Propose an appropriate, specific sampling design
ii.      Identify your population
iii.      Identify your unit of analysis
iv.      Specify your targeted sample size
Subsection titled “Measurements”
i.      Provide an introductory paragraph to this subsection
ii.      Sub-subsection titled “Dependent variable”
1.       Specify the name of your key dependent variable
2.      Identify its categories and codes
iii.      Sub-subsection titled “Independent variable”
1.       Specify the name of your key independent variable
2.      Identify its categories and codes
iv.      Sub-subsection “Control variables”
1.       One at a time, specify the name of at least two logical control variables
2.      In the same order, identify their categories and codes
Subsection titled “Limitations”
i.      Cover causality, validity, reliability, and ethics
1.       Discuss the proposed study’s potential strengths in at least one paragraph
2.      Discuss the proposed study’s potential weaknesses in at least one paragraph
4. References list (in APA style on a separate sheet of paper at the end of the outline)Complete Research Proposal Assignment Paper.

Introduction
Topic introduction and context.
Racial discrimination, which is the way of targeting accused based on race prominence, could be responsible for the increase in rate of crime arrest. Subcultural theorists argue that poor people, also referred to as have-nots, normally reside in areas where the social respect is subject to violence and physical strength and this habit promote crime.Complete Research Proposal Assignment Paper. More to this, race impacts who gets arrested, and some pieces of evidence show that minorities are disproportionate form crime statistics. It is official that high rates of arrest, conviction, and incarceration of these minorities may be as a result of criminal justice actors. It is interesting to note that race and social stratification are related in the aspect that nonwhite form lower class and this poorer class lack the genuine ways to obtain goods and they choose to join crime.
Significance
Physical injury and death are grouped as homicide, and known as the biggest cause of death amongst the youths. According to the “U.S Public health” brutality is a chief health issues which is challenging the Americans. Crime is intertwined with acts of violence. Secondly, crime is associated with loss, such as vandalism, arson, and environmental destruction.Complete Research Proposal Assignment Paper. Crimes also pose economic cost through expense linked with transfer of property through robbery, during crime, criminal violence brings about additional medical cost of attending to the victims. There is another form of cost: cost of protection, which includes funds used to guard dogs and surveillance systems. According to studies, race has a huge impact on crime, thus scientists and scholars have tried to uncover what triggers people with different skin color to engage in criminal acts. All these implications make it important to study the relation of race to crime with a mind of reducing the cost.
Research question and hypothesis.
Arguably, black people are more likely to engage in criminal activities than white people. Does this stereotype have any relevance to it? A black man in the US today has three times a higher chance of going to prison as well. There has to be a relationship that supports both statements.
Proposed research design
The research will use data collected by different institution to evaluate the relationship between crime and race. It will describe offending action of different races within the sample population and this will be used for descriptive purpose. Second, the explanation will predict race pattern in relation to crime. The analysis builds on existing records of crime documenting racial pattern. Complete Research Proposal Assignment Paper.
e.      Roadmap
The remainder of this research paper stereotypes the concerning issue of race in relation to crime. To what extent are blacks and other races associated with crime? How has stereotype affect issue of crime in minority? To answer these question, the research will involve the Stratified Sampling method because the different racial groups will be highlighted within the population. Complete Research Proposal Assignment Paper.
2. Literature Review
It is said that men and youth have extreme crime rate and it is appreciated that certain racial groups more so the blacks have higher crime rate compared to whites. In particular, pieces of research shows that African American and the Latinos have advanced street offenses compared to white. For instance, although African American form 13% of America population, they account for 39% of all arrests made for violent crime
Existing Research
Research by used of information from “Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) and the National Crime Victims Survey (NCVS), to investigate the relationship between race and crime.
Hypothesis: Blacks and Hispanic engage in criminal activities more than their white counterparts.
Theoretical framework: Moreover, these researcher used information from Add Health to investigate ethnic difference and race in violence.
Independent and dependent variable measurement: the dependent variable in this research is crime while independent variable is race.
Key findings: The research’s finding indicates that African Americans and Hispanics have higher chances of involvement in crime compared to Whites. Secondly, the research supports the idea that the difference in crime can be explained using a variation in community disadvantage that aims for African Americans. Thirdly, it was established that the difference between minority in violence (Hispanics and Blacks) was not evident.Complete Research Proposal Assignment Paper.
Study by (Butler, 2010) used self-records to determine the connection between race and crime.
Research question: Why do Blacks report more incidences of crime in the US
Theoretical framework: The research has a slight agreement in self-reports and police data for blacks. The three finding link race to poverty among the minority.
Key finding: Black people do not report incidences of crime as readily as Whites do, and finally, although there is ethnic and racial differences between white and blacks, subjects with official contacts more often report crime.
The above pieces of research are supported by who studied race in relation to crime in Chicago.
Theoretical framework: The statistics shows general, Black and Asian groups appear to be majority at most stages all over the crime scenes, unlike the White ethnic group imply that immigrants generation and neighborhood social context to greater extend have effect of crime demographic characteristics.Complete Research Proposal Assignment Paper.
Research design: Data on number of arrest based on race.
Key findings: the researcher discovered that the chance of crime activities were 85.0% more for blacks paralleled to their white neighbor, whereas Latino crime rate was approximately 10% less. The research also found out that 60% of the crime committed by the blacks can be attributed to marital status of involved parents.  Complete Research Proposal Assignment Paper.
According to research by, Latinos and African American are poorer compared to whites on ordinary case and this poverty adds to increase in crime level.
Theoretical framework: From this position, it can be argued that the reason why the minority commits crimes at a higher rate is because of the increase in poverty and the subsequent ethnic segregation.
Key finding: It was found that these group of minorities live in urban areas which is a contributing factor to advanced crime rates. Third, the ethnic prejudice, which the minorities encounter, lead to frustration and anger which in return promote criminal behavior.
According to, 52% of white rated black as six in a scale of 1-10 of violence.
Key finding: There is an evidence that links the African American race and brutality. Contrary to this view, studies shows that groups are less likely to evaluate favorably other races than their own. In Chicago, there is a higher perception of a close connection between Black adolescents and delinquency.Complete Research Proposal Assignment Paper. This may not be correct.
Research questions: Is the presence of the minority group (Black) linked to increase in crime? To what extent is race associated to crime in the neighborhood?
Hypothesis: Presence of black men is associated with crime. Complete Research Proposal Assignment Paper.
Summary of the Existing Research
In appreciating the research finding on racial difference in street crime level, it is key to note that researchers believe that the White perpetrate most white-collar offenses and more so company crime because the white lead and manage these firms. By extension it can be stated that as social stratification affect the kind of crime that individuals commit, race also contribute to the nature of crime. The white, wealthy people do engage in crimes, but they are more likely to engage in corporate crimes (White Collar). As opposed, African Americans and Hispanics tend to rule the engagements of street crime.
3. Methodology
Previous research is helpful in evaluating the different involvement of race in crimes. Perhaps the above pieces of research relied on aggregate data. Such type of research give useful though secondary proof about connection between crime and race. The aim of this paper is to arrive at enhanced perceptive on relationship between races and criminal actions.
Sampling
Sampling design: The process of stratified sampling will lead to relative rate Index. Simply put, when data is sample the rate of ethnic group will be compared to determine where there is significant difference from each other.
Population: Complete Research Proposal Assignment Paper.This research will be based in a minimum of 20 objects and data pulled from the national statistics. Some of the main considerations will be: court decision, arrest, proceeding at magistrate law court, beliefs at magistrate court, plea at crown court, and proven reoffending.
Measurement
Stratified sampling has the advantage of getting particular outcome instead of assumption. The data for stratified sampling will come from many management sources where data are extracted easily. The rate of crime will be determined at granular level from combined data based on age, ethnicity, sex and primary offence.
Categories: The categories used will be ethnic groups (black, white and Asian) these ethnic group classification will possibly conceal complexities which may surface in more detailed ethnic level. Complete Research Proposal Assignment Paper.
Independent variable: The race of offenders
Dependent variable: Number of time people engage in crime

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Limitations
In this research, the crimes to be highlighted are solely street crime, in which white collar crimes will be omitted. Institutionalized racism and crime will only be addressed as needed.
Weakness: There is a threat in the finding because it relies on already collected information that has potential methodological errors. This imply the study could have used questionable statistic.
Reliability: Comparatively this research finding is based on numbers in order to make it as reliable as it can possibly be.Complete Research Proposal Assignment Paper.

Chris,
This is a work in progress. Be sure to include a section on causality, ethics, reliability, and validity. Be sure to address the areas where I have commented. Keep it simple and be sure to do a thorough proofread/edit prior to final submission.Complete Research Proposal Assignment Paper.