Cross Cultural Psychology Critical Thinking and Contemporary Applications.

Cross Cultural Psychology Critical Thinking and Contemporary Applications.

4.1.  Multiple choice questions (key terms)

 

 

  1. What is the term for a sleeplike state marked by reduced sensitivity to stimuli, loss or alteration of knowledge, and the substitution of automatic for voluntary motor activity?
  2. sleep
  3. trance
  4. aesthetic experience
  5. dream
  6. sensory adaptation

Answer:      b

 

Cross Cultural Psychology Critical Thinking and Contemporary Applications.

2.A(n)________ is a term used to identify the feeling of pleasure evoked by stimuli that are perceived as beautiful, attractive, and rewarding.

  1. depth perception
  2. perceptual set
  3. aesthetic experience
  4. revealing experience
  5. sensory adaptation

Answer:      c

 

 

  1. The organization of sensations in three dimensions, even though the image on the eye’s retina is two-dimensional is referred to as:
  2. depth perception
  3. difference threshold
  4. sensory adaptation
  5. revealing experience
  6. sensory threshold

Answer:      a

 

  1. _________ is a quiet and relaxed state of tranquility in which a person achieves an integration of emotions, attitudes, and thoughts.
  2. hypnosis
  3. aesthetic experience
  4. trance
  5. meditation
  6. sleep

Answer:      d

  1. What is the general name for phenomena that are different than normal waking consciousness and include mystic experiences, meditation, hypnosis, trance, or possession?
  2. aesthetic experience
  3. therapy
  4. paranormal phenomena
  5. altered states of consciousness
  6. spirituality

        Cross Cultural Psychology Critical Thinking and Contemporary Applications.                                        Answer:      d

 

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6. What is the general scientific term forphenomena that appear to contradict physical laws and suggest the possibility of causation by mental processes?

  1. hypnosis
  2. magic psychology
  3. conscious efforts
  4. social psychology
  5. parapsychology

Answer:   e

 

  1. Which term stands for a broad range of phenomena concerning “non-material” matters related to faith, trust, and hope, in contrast to “material” matters related to ownership, accumulation of possessions, and competition?
  2. social psychology
  3. altered states of consciousness
  4. power of the mind philosophy
  5. eastern religions
  6. spirituality

Answer:    e

Cross Cultural Psychology Critical Thinking and Contemporary Applications.

  1. _______ refers to the tendency of the sensory system to respond less to stimuli that continue without change.
  2. sensation
  3. excessive sleep
  4. sensory adaptation
  5. meditation
  6. dreams

Answer: c

 

  1. The ________ refers to the minimum amount of physical energy needed for an observer to notice a stimulus.
  2. absolute threshold
  3. consciousness
  4. wakefulness
  5. perception
  6. meditation

Answer: a

 

  1. A(n) ________ is a mental representation that orients people to dimensions such as time, space, and the interpersonal world.
  2. perceptual set
  3. absolute threshold
  4. sensory adaptation
  5. behavioral environment
  6. altered state of consciousness

Cross Cultural Psychology Critical Thinking and Contemporary Applications.

Answer: d

 

 

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4.2.  Multiple choice questions (comprehension and application)

 

 

1.Some intriguing perceptual differences were found in comparative studies of Weston and East Asian subjects. East Asians tend to be more holistic and Westerners tend to be more_______.

  1. creative
  2. impatient
  3. analytic
  4. forgiving
  5. aggressive

Answer: c     Section:   How People Perceive Pictures

 

  1. Our experience with the environment (for example, living in a mountainous area) shapes our perception by creating perceptual sets. What are they?
  2. stress-related reactions
  3. perceptual expectations
  4. absolute thresholds
  5. adaptation strategies based on thinking
  6. negative emotions

Answer: b     Section:   How Culture Influences What We Perceive

 

  1. Individuals from hunter and gatherer cultures have _______ rates of color blindness than individuals from agricultural cultures.
  2. lower
  3. the same
  4. higher
  5. significantly higher
  6. highly unusual

Answer:  a    Section:   Perception of Color

 Cross Cultural Psychology Critical Thinking and Contemporary Applications.

 

  1. The _________ suggests that while an ethnic group may excel in a particular sensory task, they may be less adept in others. Yet in sum, sensory and other cognitive skills are evenly balanced across ethnic groups.
  2. the inequality hypothesis
  3. the power hypothesis
  4. the compensation hypothesis
  5. the justice hypothesis
  6. the consciousness hypothesis

Answer:  c    Section: Critical Thinking: Origin and Sensory Preferences

 

  1. There is evidence that scanning patterns (scanning a picture or text, for example) are subject to cultural variations. These variations are most closely linked with:
  2. perception of time
  3. religion
  4. access to water
  5. access to sand
  6. reading habits

Answer:  e     Section:   How People Scan Pictures

 

 

  1. What is the most significant factor determining an individual’s susceptibility to visual illusions?
  2. formal schooling
  3. sleep deprivation
  4. attitude about psychological experiments
  5. absolute thresholds

e.sensory adaptation

Answer:  a    Section:  Are We Equally Mislead by Visual Illusions?

 

 

  1. Which of the following is least likely to be viewed as an Altered State of Consciousness?
  2. meditation
  3. hypnotic trance
  4. fantasy
  5. possession trance
  6. sleep

Answer:  c    Section:  Beyond Altered States of Consciousness

 

  1. Under the influence of the Protestant (Christian) tradition, developed first in Western Europe, altered states of consciousness were considered:
  2. normal, common phenomena
  3. result of difficult educational environment
  4. religious experiences
  5. human emotions
  6. abnormal phenomena

Answer:  e    Section:   Beyond Altered States of Consciousness

 

  1. Until recently, the altered states of consciousness associated with religious experiences have been practically excluded from scientific psychological research. Why?
  2. because of the government’s restrictions on such studies
  3. because of the attempts of researchers to distance psychology from organized religion
  4. because of censorship: journals and magazines would not have published such research
  5. because such studies are extremely expensive and require special licensing
  6. because these states of consciousness are dangerous

Answer:  b    Section:   Beyond Altered States of Consciousness

 

  1. Imagine your client during a therapy session describes her perceptions and feelings when an evil spirit invaded her body a few days ago. From a psychological perspective, how would you define this altered state of consciousness?
  2. visionary trance
  3. non-specific spirit-related coma
  4. spiritual awakening
  5. possession trance
  6. “Seven-days-in-Tibet” experience

Answer: d      Section:   Beyond Altered States of Consciousness

 

 

  1. Which of the following most accurately reflects the language-related theories of color perception?
  2. people are generally color blind but the language is used to identify brightness
  3. certain words are linked to various units of the visible spectrum
  4. language has nothing to do with the way people see colors
  5. when a person learns a foreign language, this individual is confused about colors
  6. exposure to colors blue and red reduces a person’s accent

                        Answer:  b    Section:   Perception of Color

 

  1. Studies of color preferences showed that women across countries tend to choose and like _____________compared to other colors.
  2. reddish hues, such as pink
  3. blue and red colors
  4. greenish hues, such as olive
  5. yellow and red colors
  6. violet hues, such as lilac

Answer: a    Section: Perception of Color

 

  1. Some psychologists suggest that shamanic practices involving ritualistic trance influence ____________
  2. the brain’s serotonin and opioid neurotransmitter systems
  3. an individual’s hormonal system
  4. immune system and resistance to stress
  5. an individual’s reaction time
  6. an individual’s time perception

Answer: a   Section: Beyond Altered States of Consciousness

 

  1. People in monophasic cultures tend to interpret their dreams as:
  2. indirect indication of the dreamer’s concerns
  3. fairy tales coming out of the unconscious mind
  4. mild mental disorders
  5. a special kind of mental problems
  6. signs of demonic possession

Answer: a   Section: Sleep and Cultural Significance of Dreams

 

  1. Which part of the brain, according to M. Persinger, is closely associated with so-called God experiences?
  2. Cerebellum
  3. Frontal lobe
  4. Temporal lobe
  5. Parietal lobe
  6. Spinal Cord

Answer: c   Section: Beyond Altered States of Consciousness

 Cross Cultural Psychology Critical Thinking and Contemporary Applications.

 

 

 

 

 

4.3.  True/false questions

 

 

  1. In many non-Western musical traditions the idea of the note, as a stable, sustained pitch is foreign.

Answer:  T      Section: Perception of Music

 

 

  1. Individuals from polyphasic cultures are more likely to value dreams and treat them as part of reality.

Answer:  T        Section: Sleep and Cultural Significance of Dreams

 

 

  1. Cross-cultural psychology provides compelling evidence that sensory differences (differences in the way people hear, smell, see, etc.) between cultures are insignificant.

Answer: F         Section:  Perception of Color & Other Senses

  Cross Cultural Psychology Critical Thinking and Contemporary Applications.

 

  1. Research suggests that residents of large metropolitan cities, in general, tend to be more susceptible to near-death and other out of body experiences.

Answer:  F          Section: Beyond Altered States of Consciousness

 

  1. The compensation hypothesis, involving sensory differences between African and European cultures, has not been supported by compelling empirical data.

Answer:   T     Section: Critical Thinking: Origin and Sensory Preferences

 

 

  1. When examining the effects of food and water deprivation on word identification, researchers found that deprivation did not alter the identification of need-related words.

Answer:  F     Section:  How Culture Influences What We Perceive

 

 

  1. As individuals age, they frequently assert that time runs faster than it did when they were young. However, this observation has not been empirically validated.

Answer:   F    Section:   Perception of Time

 

  1. There is a popular perception about the main attributes of Western consciousness as being linear, pragmatic, and rational.

Answer:   T    Section:   Consciousness and Culture

Cross Cultural Psychology Critical Thinking and Contemporary Applications.

  1. Individuals from monophasic cultures are less inclined to incorporate dreams into their perception and daily experiences.

                        Answer:  T     Section:   Sleep and Cultural Significance of Dreams

 

 

  1. In the dream study conducted on a sample of Zulu South Africans, subjects with less education were more likely to consult with dream interpreters and act in response to dreams than were their more educated counterparts.

                        Answer:  T   Section:   Sleep and Cultural Significance of Dreams

 

  1. Numerous experiments have demonstrated that people have generally more difficulty judging about pictures of faces of other ethnic groups compared to faces of their own group.

Answer: T Section: How People Perceive Pictures

 

  1. Studies show that people, including residents of big cities, are substantiallyslower and less accurate at visually detecting animals compared to non-living objects such as moving cars.

Answer:  F   Section: How People Perceive Pictures

 

  1. Studies show that people from Asian cultures including China, Japan, and Korea, pay more attention to the center of pictures than people from Western cultures who pay more attention to contexts and backgrounds of pictures.

Answer:  F   Section: How People Perceive Pictures

Cross Cultural Psychology Critical Thinking and Contemporary Applications.

  1. In Taiwan, the official calendar starts in 1912, the year of the founding of the Republic of China.

Answer: T   Section: Perception of Time

 

  1. Ian Spence and his colleagues found differences in men and women’s ability to distinguish objects that appear in their field of vision.Men were are generally better at remembering and locating general landmarks in pictures, while women were are better at remembering and locating ________

Answer: Food     Section: How People Perceive Pictures

 

 

 

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4.4.    Short-answer questions

 

 

  1. What is the main psychological (cognitive) symptom of a visionary trance?

Answer: hallucinations

Section:   Beyond Altered States of Consciousness

 

Cross Cultural Psychology Critical Thinking and Contemporary Applications.

  1. After spending an hour in a remote village, you become less aware of the noise caused by the constantly blowing dessert wind. This tendency to respond less to stimuli that continue without change is called:

Answer: sensory adaptation

Section:  Sensation and Perception: Basic Principles

 

 

  1. The organization of sensations in three dimensions, even though the image on the eye’s retina is two-dimensional is called:

                        Answer: depth perception

Section:  Perception of Depth

 

  1. Every evening, Henry turns off the lights in his small apartment, sits in front of the window, and experiences a quiet state of tranquility during which he achieves an integration of his thoughts, perceptions, and attitudes. Henry’s roommates mistakenly call this hypnosis. What do psychologists call this experience?

Answer: meditation

Section:  Beyond Altered States of Consciousness

Cross Cultural Psychology Critical Thinking and Contemporary Applications.

 

  1. Despite significant differences in the manifest content of dreams, the ______ content is believed to be comparable cross-culturally.

Answer: latent

Section:  Sleep and the Cultural Significance of Dreams

 

 

  1. Trance states are often associated with sensitivity to stimuli and spiritual healing. Through what mechanism of action does this occur?

Answer:  the release of opiates in the body

Section:   Beyond Altered States of Consciousness

 

 

  1. According to the text, why do most Americans draw circles in a counter-clockwise direction?

Answer: because the way most of them learned how to write in English

Section:   How People Scan Pictures

 

  1. According to the text, what color is most likely to be described across cultures as “salient” and “active”?

Answer: red

Section:   Perception of Color

 

 

  1. What is the name of the hypothesis that asserts people who are raised in an environment shaped by carpenters tend to interpret nonrectangular figures as representations of rectangular figures seen in perspective?

                        Answer:   carpentered world

Section:   Are People Equally Misled by Visual Illusions?

 Cross Cultural Psychology Critical Thinking and Contemporary Applications.

 

  1. The text distinguishes between two types of trances; visionary and _________

Answer:  possession

Section:   Beyond Altered States of Consciousness

 

  1. 11. In which country the official calendar starts at the birthday of this country’s late communist leader?

Answer: North Korea

Section: Perception of Time

 

 

 

 

  • Essay questions

 

  1. How are aesthetical standards defined in countries where the governments restrain the free flow of information?

 

  1. Describe the cultural interpretations of the red color.

 

  1. Describe the cultural interpretations of the black color.

 

  1. What is the distinction between monophasic and polyphasic interpretations of dreams?

 

  1. What is the difference between visionary and possession trances?

 

  1. Which demographic groups are most susceptible to visual illusions?

 

  1. Describe how (using which methods) a research-oriented psychologist could study possession trance.

 

  1. Describe the most significant difference between polyphasic and monophasic cultures (in the context of dreams).

 

  1. Studies of color preferences showed that women across countries tend to choose and like reddish colors while men have a preference for greenish-blue colors. How could you explain this from the evolutionary standpoint?

 

  1. What are the main psychological (cognitive) symptom of visionary trance? Describe them. Cross Cultural Psychology Critical Thinking and Contemporary Applications.