Health Promotion and Wellness.Cultural Diversity. Environmental Health Essay.

Health Promotion and Wellness.Cultural Diversity. Environmental Health Essay.

Health Promotion and Wellness.

Cultural Diversity.

Environmental Health.

Read chapter 4, 13 & 14 of the class textbook and review the attached PowerPoint presentations.  Once done, answer the following questions;

  1. Discuss various theories of health promotion, including Pender's Health Promotion Model, the Health Belief Model, the Transtheoretical Theory, and the Theory of Reasoned Action.
  2. Discuss definitions of health.
  3. Critically analyze racial and cultural diversity in the United States.
  4. Describe the importance of air, water and food quality as a determinant of health.Health Promotion and Wellness.Cultural Diversity. Environmental Health Essay.

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As stated in the class syllabus please present your assignment in an APA format, word document, Arial 12 font attached to the forum in the discussion board tab of the blackboard title "week 4 discussion questions".  The assignment must include at least 2 evidence-based references (excluding the class textbook).  Two replies to any of your peers sustained with the proper references are required.  A minimum of 700 words is required.

˜Chapter 4

Health Promotion and Risk Reduction

˜Health Promotion Is…

˜…any combination of health education and related organizational, economic, and environmental supports for behavior of individuals, groups, or communities conducive to health (Green & Kreuter, 1991)

˜…that which is motivated by the desire to increase well-being and to reach the best possible health potential (Parse, 1990)Health Promotion and Wellness.Cultural Diversity. Environmental Health Essay.

˜Health Protection Is …(Cont.)

˜… those behaviors in which one engages with the specific intent to prevent disease, detect disease in the early stages, or maximize health within the constraints of disease (Parse, 1990)

˜… an important step in maintaining health

˜Defining Health

˜The way health is defined has shifted from a focus on the curative model, to a focus on multidimensional aspects such as the social, cultural, and environmental facets of life and health (Benson, 1996)

˜Health is viewed not only as an important goal, but as a resource for living (WHO, 1986)

˜Healthy People 2020

˜… is the health promotion initiative for the nation.

˜… challenges individuals, communities, and professionals … to take specific steps to ensure that good health, as well as long life, are enjoyed by all.

– U.S. Department of Health and
Human Services, 2012

˜Healthy People 2020 …Health Promotion and Wellness.Cultural Diversity. Environmental Health Essay.
(Cont.)

˜Broad goals

ØAttain high-quality, longer lives free of preventable disease, disability, injury, and premature death.

ØAchieve high equity, eliminate disparities, and improve the health of all groups.

ØCreate social and physical environments that promote good health for all.

ØPromote quality of life, healthy development, and healthy behaviors across all life stages.

˜Determinants of Health

˜Biology

˜Behaviors

˜Social environment

˜Physical environment

˜Policies and interventions

˜Access to high-quality health care

˜Health Promotion and Wellness.Cultural Diversity. Environmental Health Essay.

˜Theories in Health Promotion

˜Pender’s Health Promotion Model (HPM)

˜Health Belief Model (HBM)

˜Transtheoretical Model (TTM)

˜Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA)

˜Risk and Health

˜Risk is “the probability that a specific event will occur in a given time frame” (Oleckno, 2002).

˜A risk factor is an exposure that is associated with a disease (Friis & Sellers, 2004).Health Promotion and Wellness.Cultural Diversity. Environmental Health Essay.

Risk Assessment is a systematic way of distinguishing the risks posed by potentially harmful exposures.

˜Steps in Risk Assessment

˜Hazard identification

˜Risk description

˜Exposure assessment

˜Risk estimation

˜Risk Assessment

˜Modifiable risks

ØIndividual has control

ØExamples: smoking, lifestyle, eating habits, activities

˜Nonmodifiable risks

ØIndividual has little or no control

ØExamples: genetics, gender, age, environmental exposure

˜Health Promotion and Wellness.Cultural Diversity. Environmental Health Essay.

˜Risk Reduction …

Ø… is a proactive process

Ø… enables individuals to react to actual or potential threats to their health

˜Risk communication …

Ø… is the process of informing the public regarding threats

Ø… is affected by perceptions, process, and actions

˜Tobacco and Health Risk

˜Leading cause of preventable death

˜Most common in less educated populations and those living below poverty level

˜Most common form of chemical dependency

˜Tobacco in all forms is harmful.

˜Health Promotion Activities

˜Look for teachable moments

˜Assess client’s tobacco use

˜Explore willingness to quit

˜Refer to cessation programs

˜Encourage attempts to quit

˜Alcohol Consumption and Health

˜Third leading lifestyle-related cause of death for the nation

˜Short-term use causes acute risks

˜Long-term effects have major impact on health and social issues

˜Influenced by legal drinking age

Ø# 1 used and abused drug among U.S. youth

˜Health Promotion Activities (Cont.)

˜Prevent underage drinking

˜Assist with enforcement of legal drinking age

˜Identify individuals and groups at risk of abuse and dependence

˜Educate adults and youth on dangers of alcohol

˜Requires a community-wide effort to address the problem on several fronts

˜Diet and Health

˜Diet—one of most modifiable risk factors.Health Promotion and Wellness.Cultural Diversity. Environmental Health Essay.

˜Imbalance of caloric intake and physical activity

˜Complex interplay among metabolism, genetics, behavior, environment, culture, and socioeconomic status

˜Geographic areas, age, ethnicity all influence weight

˜Health Promotion Activities (Cont.)

˜Special populations have different nutritional needs

˜For individualized plans, see http://myplate.gov/

˜Educate clients about:

ØBalancing caloric intake and physical activity

ØServings vs. portion control

ØEating away from home affects “portion distortion”

ØUsing social media and mobile applications to help

˜Physical Activity and Health

˜Physical activity serves both health promotion and disease prevention purposes

˜Leisure activities are influenced by level of education, gender, age, economic level, geography

˜One’s environment plays a significant role in activity level

˜Health Promotion Activities (Cont.)

˜Support and develop “walkable” neighborhoods and cities

˜Determine recommended exercise levels for individuals

˜Visit  http://www.cdc.gov/physicalactivity/data/facts.html

˜Sleep and Health

˜Sleep is an essential component of chronic disease prevention and health promotion

˜Requirements change with age and life circumstances

˜Regulated by waking time and circadian rhythms

˜Hormones during sleep affect  memory, blood pressure, and kidney function.

˜Health Promotion Activities (Cont.)Health Promotion and Wellness.Cultural Diversity. Environmental Health Essay.

˜Sleep assessment is important

ØIdentify disorders that may affect daily activities

ØKeep sleep log

˜Practice sleep hygiene

ØEstablish environment that promotes sleep

ØAvoid food and activities that interfere with sleep.Health Promotion and Wellness.Cultural Diversity. Environmental Health Essay.