Medical Conditions Associated with Depression Assignment

Medical Conditions Associated with Depression Assignment

A number of diseases either cause depressive symptoms or have depression as a comorbidity at higher rates than would be normally expected.

In looking for the causes and associations of depression, first consider the common conditions. Then think about the very serious diseases that you don't want to miss. Beyond that, there's a very wide range of diagnoses that can look like depression:Medical Conditions Associated with Depression Assignment

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Hypothyroidism:

About 5% of the U.S. population has hypothyroidism. Checking the level of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) would help make the diagnosis. Hypothyroidism can be treated with thyroid-replacement medications such as triiodothyronine (T3) and/or levothyroxine (T4). Once TSH levels are returned to the normal range, the symptoms of depression often subside.

Parkinson disease:

Up to 60% of people with this disorder experience mild or moderate depressive symptoms. Although several reports have shown a link between depressive symptoms and Parkinson disease, it is unclear whether one causes the other or if both may arise from some common mechanism. A recent study has indicated that depressive symptoms are an early feature of Parkinson disease, preceding the characteristic movement problems seen in Parkinson such as tremor and rigid muscles. Therefore, people with signs of depression who start to develop movement problems should be promptly evaluated to rule out a diagnosis of Parkinson disease.Medical Conditions Associated with Depression Assignment

Dementia:

Dementia and depression may be difficult to differentiate, as people with either disorder are frequently passive or unresponsive, and they may appear slow, confused, or forgetful. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is useful to assess cognitive skills in people with suspected dementia. (The MMSE examines orientation, memory, and attention, as well as the ability to name objects, follow verbal and written commands, write a sentence spontaneously, and copy a complex shape.) Early and accurate diagnosis of dementia is important for patients and their families because it allows early treatment of symptoms. For people with other progressive dementia, early diagnosis may allow them to plan for the future while they can still help to make decisions. These people also may benefit from drug treatment.Medical Conditions Associated with Depression Assignment

Hypertension (C) and asthma (E) have not been specifically linked to higher rates of depression.

Some other diseases that have been linked to depression include:

·  Endocrine disease (Addison disease, diabetes, Cushing syndrome, hypoglycemia, hyperparathyroidism)

·  Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

·  Cardiovascular disease (myocardial infarction, angina)

·  Cancer (particularly of the pancreas)

·  Cerebral arteriosclerosis, cerebral infarction

·  Electrolyte and renal abnormalities

·  Folate, cobalamin and thiamine deficiencies

·  Hepatitis

·  Intracranial tumors

·  Multiple sclerosis

·  Porphyria

·  Rheumatologic disease (rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, temporal arteritis)Medical Conditions Associated with Depression Assignment

·  Syphilis

·  Temporal lobe epilepsy

·  Huntington's Disease

·  Chronic pain

·  EVIEW OF SYSTEMS

·  HISTORY

·  Keeping in mind the disorders associated with depression, you elicit a review of systems from Mrs. Gomez to help discover what these indicate regarding her underlying illness.

·  Constitutional: Mrs. Gomez has gained about 10 lbs in the last six months. She denies fevers or dizziness. This makes you less concerned about cancer or other systemic illness.

·  Respiratory: No shortness of breath, making cardio-respiratory disease less likely.

·  Cardiac: No chest pains, palpitations or edema, decreasing the likelihood of cardiovascular disease.

·  Gastrointestinal: No nausea, changes in bowel habits, hematochezia or melena. This makes you less concerned about gastrointestinal cancer or occult blood loss leading to anemia.Medical Conditions Associated with Depression Assignment

·  Endocrinologic: No polydipsia or polyuria, decreasing the likelihood of poorly controlled diabetes.

·  Neurologic: No acute neurologic changes or tremors. Her daughter confirms that patient has been alert, oriented and has had no episodes of confusion. So you are now less concerned about cerebral infarction, intracranial tumors, multiple sclerosis, and Parkinson disease.Medical Conditions Associated with Depression Assignment

·  Urologic: Normally urinates one to two times at night.

·  Once you have completed your review of systems, you excuse yourself from the room for a moment while Mrs. Gomez changes into a gown.Medical Conditions Associated with Depression Assignment