Memory Foundations and Applications Assignment Paper.

Memory Foundations and Applications Assignment Paper.

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Chapter 5

 

  1. Semantic memory is
  2. a) a working memory system.

*b) a long-term memory system for general world knowledge.

  1. c) a long-term memory system for the words in our native languages.
  2. d) a working memory system for visual information. Memory Foundations and Applications Assignment Paper.

 

  1. Lexical memory is
  2. a) a working memory system.
  3. b) a long-term memory system for general world knowledge.

*c) a long-term memory system for the words in our native languages.

  1. d) a working memory system for visual information. Memory Foundations and Applications Assignment Paper.

 

  1. Which is an example of retrieval from lexical memory?
  2. a) a person rehearses the digits that were just presented.

*b) a person uses a sentence with the word “onomatopoeia” in it.

  1. c) a person remembers the sunset she saw on her vacation in Hawaii.
  2. d) a person shoots a jumpshot in basketball.

 

  1. An associative model means that

*a) we represent information in semantic memory in terms of connections among units of information.

  1. b) we represent information in semantic memory directly in terms of how neurons fire.
  2. c) we represent information in semantic memory in terms of its relation to episodic memory.
  3. d) we represent information in semantic memory without regard to the behaviors involved in knowledge. Memory Foundations and Applications Assignment Paper.

 

  1. When someone says “Joe Biden” the node in memory for “Barack Obama” is also activated. This is called
  2. a) reverse semantics.
  3. b) node removal.

*c) spreading activation.

  1. d) interference.

 

  1. The term “spreading activation” means
  2. a) the nodes that represent individual information.
  3. b) the course through which a schema is retrieved.
  4. c) the activation of a lemma when a lexeme has been remarked.

*d) the transfer of activation from one node to an associated node. Memory Foundations and Applications Assignment Paper.

 

  1. In a semantic priming task,
  2. a) presenting one word interferes with identifying a related word in a lexical decision task.

*b) presenting one word makes it easier to identify a related word in a lexical decision task.

  1. c) presenting one word makes it easier to identify an unrelated word in a lexical decision task.
  2. d) presenting one word makes it more difficult to identify a unrelated word in a lexical decision task.

 

  1. If a person sees a string of letters like “Xvvsvo”, the person should
  2. a) respond “yes” as quickly as possible in a lexical decision task.
  3. b) tell the experimenter something is wrong with the lexical decision task.
  4. c) respond “yes” only after careful consideration in a lexical decision task.

*d) respond “no” as quickly as possible in a lexical decision task.

 

  1. In a spreading activation network, a word like “lime” can prime “lemon,” and “lemon” can then prime “law.” If “lime” primes “law,” this is called

*a) mediated priming.

  1. b) instigated priming.
  2. c) transfer priming.
  3. d) a tweetle-beetle battle.

Memory Foundations and Applications Assignment Paper.

  1. In a sentence verification task, participants decide as quickly as possible

*a) if a sentence is true or false.

  1. b) if they have seen the sentence before.
  2. c) if they can retrieve the sentence later.
  3. d) if they can pronounce the sentence in less than five seconds.

 

  1. “Birds have wings” will be verified faster than “Birds have blood,” because

*a) activation spreads more quickly between related nodes.

  1. b) more general characteristics are always more quickly mediated.
  2. c) more general characteristics are often primed by sentence activation.
  3. d) activation does not spread across categories.

 

  1. A concept, in cognitive psychology, is
  2. a) a result of activating individual nodes in a spreading activation unit.
  3. b) something that can only be represented in episodic memory.
  4. c) a mental illusion, comparable to visual illusions.

*d) a mental construct that contains information associated with a specific idea.

 

  1. Restaurant is to “McDonald’s” as

*a) a category is to an example.

  1. b) semantic memory is to episodic memory.
  2. c) spreading activation is to node associations.
  3. d) sentence verification is to lexical decision.

 

  1. Categories are “fuzzy” because

*a) they resist easy definitions or clear boundaries.

  1. b) psychologically, they elicit warm feelings in us.
  2. c) their memory representations are not stored in the cerebral cortex.
  3. d) we associated them with strong sensory responses.

Memory Foundations and Applications Assignment Paper.

  1. “Book – novel – romance” is an example of
  2. a) a spreading activation network.
  3. b) a triad of semantic retrieval.

*c) levels of categorization: superordinate, basic, subordinate.

  1. d) an innate schema: only possible in literate cultures.

 

  1. Levels of categorization has psychological reality based on which finding?
  2. a) Research has demonstrated that basic level information is not accessible during spreading activation.

*b) Research has demonstrated that basic level information is retrieved faster than subordinate or superordinate information.

  1. c) Research has demonstrated that basic level information is always transformed at the time of input into a fuzzy category.
  2. d) Research has demonstrated that basic level information is less likely to be accurately recalled.

 

  1. Superordinate information in categorization is more based on neural processes in the
  2. a) parietal lobe.
  3. b) parental lobe.

*c) pre-frontal lobe.

  1. d) posterior lobe.

 

  1. Family resemblance means that

*a) membership in a category is defined by items’ similarity to other members of the category.

  1. b) membership in a category is defined by common ancestry of the concept.
  2. c) membership in a category is defined by each item’s ability to activate superordinate structures.
  3. d) membership in a category is defined by the joining of perceptual and semantic characteristics.

 

  1. According to prototype theory,

*a) prototypes form the central feature in our representation of categories.

  1. b) prototypes activate the retrieval of subordinate exemplars.
  2. c) prototypes are only active in the subconscious.
  3. d) common members of the category do not resemble the prototype.

 

  1. Among Americans, a golden retriever is a very common and “prototypical” dog. Compared to a golden retriever, it will take Americans
  2. a) less time to verify that a Boston terrier is a dog.
  3. b) more time to verify that golden retrievers make good pets.

*c) more time to verify that a Boston terrier is a dog.

  1. d) because all people have innate concepts, one should expect no difference.

 

  1. When participants are asked to generate examples of a particular category, they tend to
  2. a) produce unusual members of the category first.
  3. b) be unduly influenced by spreading activation.
  4. c) show no signs of spreading activation. Memory Foundations and Applications Assignment Paper.

*d) produce prototypical members of the category first.

 

  1. In exemplar theory, categories are classified
  2. a) by overlooking the fuzziness of the category.
  3. b) by comparing the exemplar to the prototype.
  4. c) by maintaining a small number of specific instances of the category. Memory Foundations and Applications Assignment Paper.

*d) by maintaining a large number of specific instances of the category.

 

  1. Feature comparison theory states that
  2. a) we compare the prototype to the exemplar.
  3. b) we compare the lemma to the lexeme.

*c) we maintain a list of features for each category.

  1. d) we maintain an unusual number level of categorization.

 

  1. Defining features are
  2. a) necessary to invoke a superordinate category.

*b) required for an example of a particular category.

  1. c) implied by the nature of semantic memory.
  2. d) generally accompany an instance of the category but are not required.

 

  1. Characteristic features are
  2. a) necessary to invoke a superordinate category.
  3. b) required for an example of a particular category.
  4. c) implied by the nature of semantic memory.

*d) generally accompany an instance of the category but are not required. Memory Foundations and Applications Assignment Paper.

 

  1. Which of the following sentences is true?
  2. a) A schema is a script used to generate lexical knowledge.

*b) A schema is generalized knowledge about an event, a person, or a situation.

  1. c) A schema is a means of activating individual category nodes.
  2. d) A schema is a superordinate category.

 

  1. Sofia, a seven-year old girl, describes what she does before going to sleep. She puts on her pajamas, brushes her teeth, says good-night to mom and dad, then gets into bed. Sofia is recalling what kind of knowledge?
  2. a) lexical knowledge.
  3. b) subordinate categorical knowledge. Memory Foundations and Applications Assignment Paper.

*c) well-learned script knowledge.

  1. d) an episodic rehearsal pattern.

 

  1. Brewer and Treyens (1981) asked people to remember details from a waiting room. The participants recalled
  2. a) more schema-neutral material than schema-adverse material.

*b) more schema-consistent information than schema-neutral information.

  1. c) mostly falsely recalled the schema-consistent information.
  2. d) failed to use lexical memory when retrieving the relevant information.

 

  1. Bransford and Johnson (1972) presented participants with confusing passages to read. They found that

*a) having an organizing title aided recall. Memory Foundations and Applications Assignment Paper.

  1. b) the confusion led to an inconsistent data; semantic memory experiments should be done strictly in the lab.
  2. c) confusion boosted memory for schema-relevant details.
  3. d) schema-consistent knowledge was improperly activated.

 

  1. Bartlett (1932) asked his participants to play a “telephone game.” He showed that
  2. a) participants demonstrate veridical recall.

*b) the errors were consistent with participants’ schemas.

  1. c) sentence verification led to the best memory performance.
  2. d) each participant activated a separate associative node.

 

  1. In Bartlett’s (1932) study, upper-class British university students tended to
  2. a) recall “war of the ghosts” verbatim because they had been taught to memorize poems.
  3. b) not attend to the story because it was not about British life. Memory Foundations and Applications Assignment Paper.

*c) show unintentional distortions consistent with their own schemas.

  1. d) remember better when the story was not given a supernatural title.

 

  1. Psycholinguistics is
  2. a) the study of practical semantic memory.
  3. b) the study of the interaction between memory and language.
  4. c) the study of communication science.

*d) the study of the psychological processes involved in human language.

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  1. A major difference between human language and animal communication systems is
  2. a) animals tend to only use communication when absolutely necessary for immediate survival, whereas humans talk for the sake of talking.
  3. b) only humans use sound to communicate.

*c) animals tend to be limited in what they can communicate, but human language allows unlimited sentences to be formed.

  1. d) animals only communicate between species not within species.

 

  1. Phonology is the study of
  2. a) grammatical units of language.
  3. b) basic written units of language.

*c) sounds and how they are used in a language.

  1. d) contextual variables in language. Memory Foundations and Applications Assignment Paper.

 

  1. Syntax refers to the

*a) grammatical structure of language.

  1. b) basic written units of language.
  2. c) sounds and how they are used in a language.
  3. d) meaning inherent in a language.

 

  1. Morphology refers to
  2. a) sounds and how they are used in a language.

*b) how words are constructed within a language.

  1. c) the basic sounds used in a language.
  2. d) the written form of the language.

 

  1. Lemmas contain information about ____ and lexemes contain information about ________

*a) semantics; phonology

  1. b) semantic memory; episodic memory
  2. c) the episodic buffer; spreading activation
  3. d) phonology, orthography

 

  1. The lexeme is the
  2. a) level of representation that stores the meaning of an item.

*b) level of representation that stores the phonology of a word.

  1. c) level of representation that stores how to categorize the word.
  2. d) level of representation of its level of categorization.

 

  1. Retrieving the word “attorney” when we meant to retrieve the word “barrister” is an example of a

*a) word-exchange error.

  1. b) phonological flip.
  2. c) node association error.
  3. d) lexical transposition.

Memory Foundations and Applications Assignment Paper.

  1. The two theories that account for the bilingual lexicon are the single-store view and the dual store view. These two views differ with respect to
  2. a) how many levels of categorization bilinguals have.
  3. b) whether there are multiple lexeme levels.
  4. c) their explanation of coordinate bilinguals.

*d) if lemmas are shared across languages.

 

  1. Cross-language priming studies show that
  2. a) words related in meaning do not prime across language.
  3. b) only phonological priming works across languages.
  4. c) neither semantic nor phonological priming works across language.

*d) words related in meaning prime similar words in a bilingual’s other language.

 

  1. Distributional information refers
  2. a) to the tendency for infants to rapidly develop coordinate lexemes.
  3. b) to similarities among concepts in spreading activation.

*c) to the patterns of speech that co-occur, that is, aspect of language that always accompanies each other.

  1. d) to the pragmatics of language.

 

  1. When an infant uses the word “chair” just to the chair and not the chair and the floor underneath it, this is an example of the
  2. a) use of distributional information.

*b) whole-object assumption.

  1. c) lexeme mapping.
  2. d) lexical constraint assumption.

 

  1. Research shows that the best way for adults to learn a new language is
  2. a) the submersion method.

*b) the immersion method.

  1. c) the audiolingual method.
  2. d) the submersible method.

 

  1. In a neuroimaging study on semantic-verification tasks, Raposo et al. found that
  2. a) greater frontal lobe activity was needed to do sentence verification when the non-associative distance between the verb clause and antecedent were not definable.

*b) areas of the left prefrontal lobe and areas of the left medial temporal lobe were particularly active during sentence verification

  1. c) areas of the right medial temporal lobe were the primary area activating during sentence verification tasks.
  2. d) greater right medial temporal activity was need to parse verb clauses.

 

  1. Which of these statements about music and semantic memory is true?

*a) Melodic structure is crucial to meaning in semantic memory for music.

  1. b) Meaning can only be inferred from music when vocal parts are included.
  2. c) People can learn large amounts of music because it lacks a semantic memory component.
  3. d) all of the above are true.

 

  1. In a Basque-English multilingual, it was shown that a Basque word like “bazkaria” (meaning lunch) can prime English words like “dinner.” This supports the
  2. a) department store view of language.
  3. b) multiple-store view of bilingual representation

*c) single-store view of bilingual representation

  1. d) dual-store view of bilingual representation

 

  1. In an experiment on prototypes and semantic priming, Miles and Minda (2012) found that priming

*a) led to faster judgments for prototypical category members

  1. b) led to slower judgments for prototypical category members.
  2. c) priming does not affect prototype affirmation.
  3. d) priming was not measurable when judgment processes were not affected.

 

  1. In an experiment in which all the participants were Economics and History majors, it was found that the name “Keynes” (a famous economist) led to faster judgments about economic terms than did the name “Churchill.” This is an example of

*a) spreading activation in an associative network.

  1. b) dual-store view of bilingual representation
  2. c) prototype ratification.
  3. d) sentence verification.

 

  1. Which is an example of a fuzzy category?
  2. a) all isosceles triangles.
  3. b) whole numbers.

*c) Asian-Americans

  1. d) none of the above. Memory Foundations and Applications Assignment Paper.