NURS 6231- Midterm And Final Exam Study Guide Questions And Answers

NURS 6231- Midterm And Final Exam Study Guide Questions And Answers

In this course, you develop a comprehensive Course Project: Promoting Health Care Quality. To initiate this project, this week you examine the systems and structures of an organization with which you are familiar.

Organizational Systems and Structures, Part 1

Section 1: Organizational Systems and Structures Evaluation

NURS 6231- Midterm And Final Exam Study Guide Questions And Answers

When a problem related to health care quality and patient safety arises, there can be an inclination to focus on a specific event rather than to examine the larger context surrounding it. Analyzing the systems and structures within an organization provides a foundation for generating a fuller understanding of how and why the event occurred and

for developing strategies to address the underlying issues. Perhaps more importantly, such an analysis can be used to proactively identify potential challenges and improve organizational systems and structures in order to promote positive outcomes.

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NURS 6231- Midterm And Final Exam Study Guide Questions And Answers

In the first section of your Course Project, you analyze the systems and structures of a health care organization with which you are familiar.

To prepare:

Identify a health care organization with which you are familiar; one that you will be able to sufficiently analyze to complete the full scope of the Course Project. (Refer to the Course Project Overview as needed.)

Select two or more of the following frameworks:

· Learning organizations

· Complex adaptive systems (CAS)

· Clinical microsystems

· Good to great

· The 5 Ps

With these frameworks in mind, analyze the systems and structures of the organization. Be sure to research and consider:

NURS 6231- Midterm And Final Exam Study Guide Questions And Answers

· Mission, vision, and values

· Strategic plan, goals, and objectives, if possible

· Key operational processes and patterns

· Information technology use

· Organizational priorities and investments, as indicated by financial data

Week 4: Organizational Systems and Structures, Part 2

Section 1: Organizational Systems and Structures Evaluation

As you continue your evaluation of a health care organization, it is essential to pay attention to culture. Organizational culture provides the context in which all interactions and processes occur and is therefore central to any effort to enact change.

NURS 6231- Midterm And Final Exam Study Guide Questions And Answers

To prepare:

Continue to analyze your selected organization, as indicated in Week 3 (Section 1 of the Course Project).

Continue to analyze essential elements of organizational culture and evaluate the influence of culture on the ability to achieve goals within your selected organization. NURS 6231- Midterm And Final Exam Study Guide Questions And Answers

To complete:

Write a 3- to 5-page paper in which you:

· Provide a description of the organization that you selected

· Present your analysis of the organization with attention to:

· Its mission, vision, values

· Strategic plan, goals, and objectives

· Key operational processes and patterns

· Information technology use

· Organizational priorities and investments, as indicated by financial data

· The essential elements of the organization’s culture

· The influence of culture on meeting organizational goals

NURS 6231- Midterm And Final Exam Study Guide Questions And Answers

Section 2: Quality Improvement Issue

To help you move forward with your Course Project, this week you identify a quality issue that you would like to address and submit a description of this issue for Instructor feedback.

Your proposed issue should reflect a genuine need for improvement within your selected health care organization. Through your Course Project, you will analyze this issue and propose strategies to improve outcome(s), including the redesign of a related process.

NURS 6231- Midterm And Final Exam Study Guide Questions And Answers

To prepare:

· Review the six quality improvement aims from the Institute of Medicine (IOM)

· Safe: Avoiding harm to patients from the care that is intended to help them.

· Effective: Providing services based on scientific knowledge to all who could benefit and refraining from providing services to those not likely to benefit (avoiding underuse and misuse, respectively).

· Patient-centered: Providing care that is respectful of and responsive to individual patient preferences, needs, and values and ensuring that patient values guide all clinical decisions.

· Timely: Reducing waits and sometimes harmful delays for both those who receive and those who give care.

· Efficient: Avoiding waste, including waste of equipment, supplies, ideas, and energy.

· Equitable: Providing care that does not vary in quality because of personal characteristics such as gender, ethnicity, geographic location, and socioeconomic status.

· Conduct a search of the literature to help you identify a specific issue that warrants attention and action to promote quality improvement. NURS 6231- Midterm And Final Exam Study Guide Questions And Answers

· Consider what you have surmised thus far through your analysis of the organization

that you selected. What have you noticed that could help you identify a quality related need for improvement? For instance:

· What has captured your attention in meetings, reports, and/or daily activities?

· Have you noticed discrepancies between activities in the organization and

recommendations in the research literature, quality standards, and/or the

organization’s stated policies and procedures?

· If so, what do you think could be the reason(s) for variations or gaps between

what you have observed and what is recommended? NURS 6231- Midterm And Final Exam Study Guide Questions And Answers

Identify a quality improvement issue that you would like to investigate for this project.

Note: Review the Course Project Overview/full instructions, located in the Week 3

Learning Resources, as needed to identify a quality improvement issue that is viable for

completing the full scope of this project. Once you receive a response from your

Instructor on the quality improvement issue that you submit, be sure to integrate his or

her feedback before moving forward with Section 3 of your Course Project.

To complete:

Write a brief description of the quality improvement issue that you would like to address

for your Course Project. NURS 6231- Midterm And Final Exam Study Guide Questions And Answers

In this course, you develop a comprehensive Course Project: Promoting Health Care Quality. To initiate this project, this week you examine the systems and structures of an organization with which you are familiar.

Week 3: Organizational Systems and Structures, Part 1

Section 1: Organizational Systems and Structures Evaluation When a problem related to health care quality and patient safety arises, there can be an inclination to focus on a specific event rather than to examine the larger context surrounding it. Analyzing the systems and structures within an organization provides a foundation for generating a fuller understanding of how and why the event occurred and for developing strategies to address the underlying issues. Perhaps more importantly, such an analysis can be used to proactively identify potential challenges and improve organizational systems and structures in order to promote positive outcomes. In the first section of your Course Project, you analyze the systems and structures of a health care organization with which you are familiar. To prepare:

NURS 6231- Midterm And Final Exam Study Guide Questions And Answers

 Identify a health care organization with which you are familiar; one that you will be able to sufficiently analyze to complete the full scope of the Course Project. (Refer to the Course Project Overview as needed.) This may be the same organization that you addressed in this week’s Discussion.

 Select two or more of the following frameworks: o Learning organizations o Complex adaptive systems (CAS) o Clinical microsystems o Good to great o The 5 Ps

You may use the same frameworks that you addressed in this week’s Discussion.

 With these frameworks in mind, analyze the systems and structures of the organization. Be sure to research and consider: o Mission, vision, and values o Strategic plan, goals, and objectives, if possible o Key operational processes and patterns o Information technology use o Organizational priorities and investments, as indicated by financial data

NURS 6231- Midterm And Final Exam Study Guide Questions And Answers

In Week 4, you will receive instructions for integrating an analysis of organizational culture into development of Section 1 of your Course Project. Once you have completed your evaluation, you will write a 3- to 5-page paper, which is due by Day 7 of Week 4.

Week 4: Organizational Systems and Structures, Part 2 Section 1: Organizational Systems and Structures Evaluation

As you continue your evaluation of a health care organization, it is essential to pay attention to culture. Organizational culture provides the context in which all interactions and processes occur, and is therefore central to any effort to enact change. To prepare: NURS 6231- Midterm And Final Exam Study Guide Questions And Answers

 Continue to analyze your selected organization, as indicated in Week 3 (Section 1 of the Course Project).

 In addition, consider the ideas and information exchanged in this week’s Discussion. Continue to analyze essential elements of organizational culture and evaluate the influence of culture on the ability to achieve goals within your selected organization. NURS 6231- Midterm And Final Exam Study Guide Questions And Answers

To complete: Write a 3- to 5-page paper in which you:

 Provide a description of the organization that you selected

 Present your analysis of the organization with attention to: o Its mission, vision, values o Strategic plan, goals, and objectives o Key operational processes and patterns o Information technology use o Organizational priorities and investments, as indicated by financial data o The essential elements of the organization’s culture o The influence of culture on meeting organizational goals. NURS 6231- Midterm And Final Exam Study Guide Questions And Answers

Due by Day 7. Section 2: Quality Improvement Issue To help you move forward with your Course Project, this week you identify a quality issue that you would like to address and submit a description of this issue for Instructor feedback. Your proposed issue should reflect a genuine need for improvement within your selected health care organization. Through your Course Project, you will analyze this issue and propose strategies to improve outcome(s), including the redesign of a related process. To prepare:

 Review the six quality improvement aims from the Institute of Medicine (IOM) presented in Chapter 3 of the Sadeghi, Barzi, Mikhail, and Shabot text. NURS 6231- Midterm And Final Exam Study Guide Questions And Answers

 Conduct a search of the literature to help you identify a specific issue that warrants attention and action to promote quality improvement.

 Consider what you have surmised thus far through your analysis of the organization that you selected. What have you noticed that could help you identify a quality- related need for improvement? For instance:

o What has captured your attention in meetings, reports, and/or daily activities? o Have you noticed discrepancies between activities in the organization and

recommendations in the research literature, quality standards, and/or the organization’s stated policies and procedures?

o If so, what do you think could be the reason(s) for variations or gaps between what you have observed and what is recommended? NURS 6231- Midterm And Final Exam Study Guide Questions And Answers

 Identify a quality improvement issue that you would like to investigate for this project. Note: Review the Course Project Overview/full instructions, located in the Week 3 Learning Resources, as needed to identify a quality improvement issue that is viable for completing the full scope of this project. Once you receive a response from your Instructor on the quality improvement issue that you submit, be sure to integrate his or her feedback before moving forward with Section 3 of your Course Project. To complete: Write a brief description of the quality improvement issue that you would like to address for your Course Project. Submit by Day 7. NURS 6231- Midterm And Final Exam Study Guide Questions And Answers

Week 6: The Quality Movement

Section 3: Quality Measurement and Assessment

Measuring and assessing quality provides a foundation for identifying needs for improvement, developing effective interventions, and then monitoring progress toward desired results.

In this section of the Course Project, you focus on what you would measure—and how you would measure it—relative to your previously identified quality improvement issue. Note: This section of the Course Project will serve as the Portfolio Assignment for this course.

NURS 6231- Midterm And Final Exam Study Guide Questions And Answers

To prepare:

 Review the Learning Resources. Also conduct a search of the literature related to your selected quality improvement issue and complete the “Evidence Matrix” document (provided in this week’s Learning Resources).

 Evaluate the evidence presented in the research literature and the quality standards proposed by various organizations, including the IOM’s six aims for quality improvement.

 Based on this review and your knowledge of the organization that you have selected, determine appropriate measures and indicators of performance related to your identified quality improvement issue.

NURS 6231- Midterm And Final Exam Study Guide Questions And Answers

 Consider how you could gather and use historical evidence of the organization’s performance related to the quality improvement issue. Also consider methods for gathering and assessing current quantitative and qualitative data, including those currently in use by the organization (e.g., chart audit data, staff surveys, quality indicators that are monitored, observations). If possible, examine actual data to assess your selected organization’s performance related to the issue. NURS 6231- Midterm And Final Exam Study Guide Questions And Answers

 Think about what, specifically, you would like to achieve related to this issue. Establish realistic, evidence-based quality performance targets. NURS 6231- Midterm And Final Exam Study Guide Questions And Answers

 Analyze gap(s) between the organization’s current performance and the performance targets.

 As you do this, you may wish to create a graphic organizer / alignment chart for your own use that illustrates:

o The measures and indicators that you would evaluate o Current and historical data related to this quality issue —either actual data or

methods for how you would collect and analyze the data o Methods for collecting and analyzing data in the future (including when you

would do this) o Realistic, evidence-based targets

Additional instructions for Section 3 are presented in Week 7. To complete this Assignment, you will write a paper introducing your quality improvement plan. This Assignment is due by Day 7 of Week 8.

Week 7: Improvement Science Section 3: Quality Measurement and Assessment Continue working on Section 3, introduced in Week 6. To prepare: NURS 6231- Midterm And Final Exam Study Guide Questions And Answers

 Think about the quality improvement issue that you are addressing and the associated plan you are developing. Consider the following:

o What is the overall purpose, or aim, of doing this work?

NURS 6231- Midterm And Final Exam Study Guide Questions And Answers

o What would you hope to achieve for the organization by undertaking this project? What are the objectives of this initiative?

o What value would this work add to the organization? o How would this work improve practice and create outcomes with impact?

 Review Chapter 7 of the Sadeghi, Barzi, Mikhail, and Shabot course text. Consider how addressing this quality improvement issue would align with the organization’s mission, vision, values, and strategic goals and objectives. How does it relate to regulatory issues, and other matters that are significant for the organization? If you notice a misalignment, use this as an opportunity to refine your focus.

 With this in mind, continue to hone your development of this Assignment, integrating the concepts addressed here into Section 3. NURS 6231- Midterm And Final Exam Study Guide Questions And Answers

To complete: Write a 3- to 5-page paper that includes:

 An introduction to your quality improvement plan, including the overarching aim of this initiative and an explanation of how it aligns with the mission, vision, values, and strategic goals and objectives of the organization, as well as regulatory issues and other matters that are significant for the organization

 An overview of the current situation with regard to this quality improvement issue in the organization

 A description of measures and indicators

 A presentation on data related to this issue, including: o Actual historical and current data and / or a description of the methods you

would use to collect and analyze the data o Methods for collecting and analyzing data in the future, including when you

would do this

 A description of realistic, evidence-based targets Be sure to cite evidence from the literature to justify your selection of the measures and indicators, as well as the performance targets. Note: This section of the Course Project serves as the Portfolio Assignment for this course. Due by Day 7 of Week 8. NURS 6231- Midterm And Final Exam Study Guide Questions And Answers

Section 4: Quality Improvement Strategies Start to think about quality improvement methods/strategies (these relate to bridging the gap between current performance and targets as established in Section 3).

To prepare:

NURS 6231- Midterm And Final Exam Study Guide Questions And Answers

 Refer to the modified Donabedian model (access, structure, process, outcome, and patient experience) presented in Chapter 9 of the Sadeghi, Barzi, Mikhail, and Shabot text.

 Recall the performance targets that you identified for Section 3 (in Week 6). What does the recommendation that performance-driven planning should “begin with the end in mind” suggest given your established goals?

 Review the information presented in Chapter 9 of the Sadeghi, Barzi, Mikhail, and Shabot text, and think about how you would assess the organization’s strengths and weaknesses related to the performance gaps that you identified in Section 3 (Week 6). NURS 6231- Midterm And Final Exam Study Guide Questions And Answers

 Based on the above, start to think of specific evidence-based strategies that could be implemented to close / minimize the performance gaps that you have identified. Consider both interventions (what) and processes (how). Focus on strategies that are supported by the latest research and could create systems-level change. These may be tentative for now, but be sure to identify at least one that specifically lends itself to a change in process (i.e., practice, protocol, pathway, activity). NURS 6231- Midterm And Final Exam Study Guide Questions And Answers

Additional instructions for Section 4 are presented next week. To complete this Assignment, you will create a process map and write a paper describing quality improvement strategies. This Assignment is due by Day 7 of Week 8.

Week 8: Process Mapping Section 3: Quality Measurement and Assessment Review the complete Assignment description presented in Weeks 6 and 7. Submit Section 3 by Day 7. NURS 6231- Midterm And Final Exam Study Guide Questions And Answers

Section 4: Quality Improvement Strategies

For this section of your Course Project, you create a process map to examine a current process related to your quality improvement issue. You will use the results of the process mapping to redesign a process to help minimize or close the performance gap(s). As you proceed, keep in mind the importance of maintaining a patient-centered focus so the patient experience is not negatively affected by any changes in process. NURS 6231- Midterm And Final Exam Study Guide Questions And Answers

To prepare:

 Review the instructions provided in the Learning Resources for creating a process map.

 With your quality improvement issue in mind, as well as the other work you have completed on your Course Project thus far, think about how creating a process map could help you to better understand your quality improvement issue and redesign an associated process.

 Create a process map using Microsoft Word or PowerPoint.

NURS 6231- Midterm And Final Exam Study Guide Questions And Answers

 Refine the strategies for promoting systems-level change to minimize or close the performance gap(s) that you began to think about in Week 7. As part of this, identify a way to redesign at least one process based on your analysis of the process map you have created.

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To complete:

 Write a 2- to 3-page paper in which you describe quality improvement strategies that you selected related to your quality improvement issue.

 Finalize your process map, which will be submitted along with the paper. NURS 6231- Midterm And Final Exam Study Guide Questions And Answers

Submit your paper and process map by Day 7.

Week 9: Evaluating Outcomes Section 5: Evaluation Plan

To prepare:

 Review the information on evaluation, including data representation and quality monitoring, presented in the Learning Resources. NURS 6231- Midterm And Final Exam Study Guide Questions And Answers

 Review your work on the Course Project thus far, particularly Sections 3 and 4.

 Think about how your quality improvement initiative could be evaluated. Consider the following: o Which stakeholders need information related to this initiative? What do they need

this information for? o How would you assess the outcomes in the short-term and long-term? o How would you analyze related processes, including but not limited to the one

you redesigned in Section 4? o How should an analysis of organizational structures be integrated into your

evaluation? o How would you identify and evaluate any unintended consequences that may

arise? o What metrics should the organization use to gauge progress and the

effectiveness of the quality improvement initiative? How would these metrics incorporate the measures and indicators you identified in Section 3? Are there additional measures and indictors that you now think should be included? NURS 6231- Midterm And Final Exam Study Guide Questions And Answers

o How should the organization track and display data for an interdisciplinary audience? How could the use of a dashboard or balanced scorecard be of value?

o How could the organization create an integrated view of performance that links finance and quality?

To complete: Develop a 2- to 3-page evaluation plan that includes the following:

NURS 6231- Midterm And Final Exam Study Guide Questions And Answers

 An outline of the methods that you would propose for evaluating the quality improvement initiative and the financial implications

 A description of specific metrics that integrate your previously identified measures and indicators and any others you have deemed important

 A recommendation of how the organization could represent data related to this quality improvement issue for ongoing monitoring and to determine the value or success of the initiative

 An explanation of how the organization could create an integrated view of performance that links finance and quality

This Assignment is due by Day 7 of Week 10.

NURS 6231- Midterm And Final Exam Study Guide Questions And Answers

Section 6: Quality Improvement Plan

In this section of the Course Project, you synthesize your analysis and recommendations into an action plan for implementing the quality improvement initiative. To prepare:

 Begin to develop a plan for implementing your quality improvement initiative, including the redesigned process that you identified in Section 3. Consider the following: o How would you undertake the process of determining a timeline for planning,

implementing, and evaluating this quality improvement plan? o What are some reasonable milestones for this initiative? What are the daily,

weekly, monthly steps/goals? To complete: NURS 6231- Midterm And Final Exam Study Guide Questions And Answers

 Write a 2- to 3-page summary of your quality improvement action plan.

This Assignment is due by Day 7 of Week 10. NURS 6231- Midterm And Final Exam Study Guide Questions And Answers

Week 10: Interdisciplinary Collaboration Section 5: Evaluation Plan Review the complete Assignment description presented in Week

Discussion: Using Improvement Science Models to Promote Quality and Safety
…while all changes do not lead to improvement, all improvement requires change.

—United States Agency for International Development

Improvement science models bring together research and evidence-based practice to identify the most effective ways to promote quality and safety in health care. As a
central tenet of quality improvement, attention must be paid to the processes that contribute to outcomes.
In this Discussion, you examine quality improvement models and evaluate how they could be applied to address specific issues within health care organizations. NURS 6231- Midterm And Final Exam Study Guide Questions And Answers

To prepare:

Review the improvement models presented in the Learning Resources.
Evaluate each of the models and select two on which to focus for this Discussion.
Consider how each of the two models could be utilized in a health care organization to promote quality and safety. Think about the following:
How does the model bring together research and evidence-based practice to facilitate quality improvement?
How does the model contribute to a culture of quality and safety?
How does it address changes in process?
Reflect on the quality improvement issue and the health care setting that you are addressing for your Course Project. Of the two models that you have selected,
determine which one you, as a nurse leader-manager, would use to address this issue. Also consider how this would relate to one or more of the IOM’s six aims for
quality and safety. NURS 6231- Midterm And Final Exam Study Guide Questions And Answers

Post your analysis of how the two improvement models that you selected could foster a culture of quality and patient safety and facilitate changes in process that
promote positive outcomes. Explain how you would use one of these models to address the quality improvement issue in the organization that you have selected for your
Course Project, and how doing so would relate to one or more of the IOM’s six aims for improving quality and safety.

NURS 6231- Midterm And Final Exam Study Guide Questions And Answers

Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses.
Respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days using one or more of the following approaches:
Offer additional strategies for using your colleague’s selected model to address the IOM’s six aims for quality.
Share insights for engaging frontline staff using your colleague’s selected improvement model.
Compare the steps in the improvement model that you selected with your colleague’s.
Suggest an alternative model for your colleague to utilize in his or her identified health care organization. NURS 6231- Midterm And Final Exam Study Guide Questions And Answers

Required Readings

Hickey, J. V., & Brosnan, C. A. (2012). Evaluation of health care quality in advanced practice nursing. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company.
Review Chapter 6, “Evaluating Health Care Information Systems and Patient Care Technology” (pp. 113–133) (assigned in Week 6)
This chapter examines federally mandated use of health information technology to improve health care and care delivery. In addition, technology competencies are
discussed along with strategies for evaluating health information technologies in coordination with nurse informaticists. NURS 6231- Midterm And Final Exam Study Guide Questions And Answers

Chapter 7, “Evaluation of Patient Care Standards, Guidelines, and Protocols” (pp. 135–158) (assigned in Week 4)
How can you know if an organization is delivering the best possible care? This chapter explores evaluation methods for patient care and discusses methods used to
evaluate innovations that can lead to practice changes.
Sadeghi, S., Barzi, A., Mikhail, O., & Shabot, M. M. (2013). Integrating quality and strategy in health care organizations. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Chapter 7, “Understanding Quality and Performance” (pp. 133–160)
Chapter 9, “Closing the Gaps” (pp. 179–194)
Altmann, T. K. (2007). An evaluation of the seminal work of Patricia Benner: Theory or philosophy? Contemporary Nurse: A Journal for the Australian Nursing Profession,
25(1/2), 114–123. NURS 6231- Midterm And Final Exam Study Guide Questions And Answers
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

Altmann summarizes the foundational work of Benner’s novice to expert theory, reviews critiques, and outlines how Benner’s concepts are important in nursing.
Dixon-Woods, M., Bosk, C. L., Aveling, E. L., Goeschel, C. A., & Pronovost, P. J. (2011). Explaining Michigan: Developing an ex post theory of a quality improvement
program. The Milbank Quarterly, 89(2), 167–205. NURS 6231- Midterm And Final Exam Study Guide Questions And Answers
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

NURS 6231- Midterm And Final Exam Study Guide Questions And Answers

This article discusses evidenced-based practice and how it relates to quality improvement in healthcare.
Ernst, M. M., Wooldridge, J. L., Conway, E., Dressman, K., Weiland, J., Tucker, K., & Seid, M. (2010). Using quality improvement science to implement a
multidisciplinary behavioral intervention targeting pediatric inpatient airway clearance. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 35(1), 14–24.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases. NURS 6231- Midterm And Final Exam Study Guide Questions And Answers

Researchers applied a Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) quality improvement model in completing an evidenced based study of pediatric patients with cystic fibrosis.
Institute of Medicine. (2001). Crossing the quality chasm: A new health system for the 21st century. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

Review as needed (assigned in a previous week). This report outlines the Institute of Medicine’s (IOM’s) six aims to improve the quality of health care.
Maguad, B. A. (2011). Deming’s ‘profound knowledge’: Implications for higher education. Education, 131(4), 768–774. NURS 6231- Midterm And Final Exam Study Guide Questions And Answers
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

The author of this article describes Deming’s System of Profound Knowledge as it relates to higher education.
Murphree, P., Vath, R. R., & Daigle, L. (2011). Sustaining Lean Six Sigma projects in health care. Physician Executive, 37(1), 44–48.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases. NURS 6231- Midterm And Final Exam Study Guide Questions And Answers

Lean Six Sigma is a quality improvement model that is frequently used in health care. The authors of this article provide strategies for monitoring improvement
projects in order to sustain improved quality outcomes.
Polk, J. D. (2011). Lean Six Sigma, innovation, and the change acceleration process can work together. Physician Executive, 37(1), 38–42.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

Dr. Polk describes both the Lean process and the Six Sigma process and explains how health care organizations combine these two improvement models to promote quality
outcomes. NURS 6231- Midterm And Final Exam Study Guide Questions And Answers
Improvement Science Research Network. (n.d.). What is improvement science? Retrieved March 13, 2013, from http://isrn.net/about/improvement_science.asp

As indicated in this resource, improvement science focuses on research about what improvement strategies are most effective for promoting health care quality and
safety.
Institute for Healthcare Improvement. (2012a). How to improve. Retrieved from http://www.ihi.org/knowledge/Pages/HowtoImprove/default.aspx. NURS 6231- Midterm And Final Exam Study Guide Questions And Answers

The Institute for Healthcare Improvement outlines each step in the Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) model as described in The Improvement Guide: A Practical Approach to
Enhancing Organizational Performance. Click on the links to read each section.
Nursing Theories. (2011). From novice to expert: Patricia E. Benner. Retrieved from
http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/Patricia_Benner_From_Novice_to_Expert.html

This website presents an overview of the basic elements of Benner’s Novice to Expert Theory.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2012). AHRQ health care innovations exchange. Retrieved from
http://www.innovations.ahrq.gov. NURS 6231- Midterm And Final Exam Study Guide Questions And Answers

The Innovations Exchange was established to help health care providers “solve problems, improve health care quality, and reduce disparities.” This website presents
evidence-based innovations and QualityTools along with articles and up-to-date research findings.
United States Agency for International Development. (n.d.). The science of improvement. Retrieved March 13, 2013, from
http://www.hciproject.org/improvement_tools/improvement_methods/science

The USAID organization provides a concise overview of improvement science and its application to improving health care quality.
Required Media
Laureate Education (Producer). (2013a). Improvement science defined. Retrieved from https://class.waldenu.edu

NURS 6231- Midterm And Final Exam Study Guide Questions And Answers