NURS 6501 Week 8 Discussion Essay Assignment - Walden

NURS 6501 Week 8 Discussion Essay Assignment - Walden

Many patient symptoms can be tied to multiple disorders, which may lead to misdiagnoses. For instance, consider two digestive disorders of the gastrointestinal tract—inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome. These two disorders are commonly confused because they present similar symptoms. As an advanced practice nurse, you must know the differences to properly diagnose and treat the disorders. How does the pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel disease compare to the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome? How do treatments for the two disorders compare? NURS 6501 Week 8 Discussion Essay Assignment - Walden

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To Prepare

· Review Chapter 36 in the Huether and McCance text and Chapter 13 in the McPhee and Hammer text.

· Identify the pathophysiological mechanisms of inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome. Think about similarities and differences between the disorders.

· Consider common treatments for inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome. Reflect on whether treatments for one disorder would work for the other disorder.

· Select one of the following patient factors: genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, or behavior. Reflect on how the factor you selected might impact the pathophysiology of and treatments for each disorder. NURS 6501 Week 8 Discussion Essay Assignment - Walden

Post an explanation of the pathophysiological mechanisms of inflammatory bowel disorder and irritable bowel syndrome, including similarities and differences. Then describe common treatments, addressing whether treatments for one disorder would work for the other disorder. Finally, explain how the patient factor you selected might impact the pathophysiology of and treatments for each disorder. NURS 6501 Week 8 Discussion Essay Assignment - Walden

https://class.waldenu.edu/bbcswebdav/institution/USW1/201910_27/MS_NURS/NURS_6501/Media/NURS_6501_Week08_media/index.htm

https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/digestive-diseases

Jamie is a 3-month-old female who presents with her mother for evaluation of “throwing up.” Mom reports that Jamie has been throwing up pretty much all the time since she was born. Jamie does not seem to be sick. In fact, she drinks her formula vigorously and often acts hungry. Jamie has normal soft brown bowel movements every day and, overall, seems like a happy and contented baby. NURS 6501 Week 8 Discussion Essay Assignment - Walden. She smiles readily and does not cry often. Other than the fact that she often throws up after drinking a bottle, she seems to be a very healthy, happy infant. A more precise history suggests that Jamie does not exactly throw up—she does not heave or act unwell—but rather it just seems that almost every time she drinks a bottle she regurgitates a milky substance. Mom thought that she might be allergic to her formula and switched her to a hypoallergenic formula. It didn’t appear to help at all, and now Mom is very concerned. NURS 6501 Week 8 Discussion Essay Assignment - Walden

Cases like these are not uncommon. The mother was concerned and thinking her daughter may have an allergy; she changed to a different formula. However, sometimes babies have immature GI tracts that can lead to physiology reflux as they adapt to normal life outside the uterus. Parents often do not consider this possibility, prompting them to change formulas rather than seeking medical care. As in the case study above, GI alterations can often be difficult to identify because many cause similar symptoms. This same issue also arises with adults—adults may present with symptoms that have various potential causes. When evaluating patients, it is important for the advanced practice nurse to know the types of questions he or she needs to ask to obtain the appropriate information for diagnosis. For this reason, you must have an understanding of common GI disorders such as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), peptic ulcer disease (PUD), and gastritis. NURS 6501 Week 8 Discussion Essay Assignment - Walden

To Prepare

  • Review      this week’s media presentation on the gastrointestinal system.
  • Review      Chapter 35 in the Huether and McCance text. Identify the normal      pathophysiology of gastric acid stimulation and production.
  • Review      Chapter 37 in the Huether and McCance text. Consider the pathophysiology      of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), peptic ulcer disease (PUD), and      gastritis. Think about how these disorders are similar and different.
  • Select      a patient factor different from the one you selected in this week’s      Discussion: genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, or behavior. Consider how      the factor you selected might impact the pathophysiology of GERD, PUD, and      gastritis. Reflect on how you would diagnose and prescribe treatment of      these disorders for a patient based on this factor. NURS 6501 Week 8 Discussion Essay Assignment - Walden
  • Review      the “Mind Maps—Dementia, Endocarditis, and Gastro-oesophageal Reflux      Disease (GERD)” media in the Week 2 Learning Resources. Use the examples      in the media as a guide to construct a mind map for gastritis. Consider      the epidemiology and clinical presentation of gastritis. NURS 6501 Week 8 Discussion Essay Assignment - Walden

To Complete

Write a 2- to 3-page paper that addresses the following:

  • Describe      the normal pathophysiology of gastric acid stimulation and production.      Explain the changes that occur to gastric acid stimulation and production      with GERD, PUD, and gastritis disorders.

Explain how the factor you selected might impact the pathophysiology of GERD, PUD, and gastritis. Describe how you would diagnose and prescribe treatment of these

Question 1

A 40-year-old female presents complaining of pain near the midline in the epigastrium. Assuming the pain is caused by a stimulus acting on an abdominal organ, the pain felt is classified as: NURS 6501 Week 8 Discussion Essay Assignment - Walden

a. Visceral
b. Somatic
c. Parietal
d. Referred

Question 2

An 8-week-old male was recently diagnosed with cystic fibrosis. Which of the following digestive alterations would be expected?

a. Insufficient bile production
b. Gastric atrophy
c. Hypersecretion of stomach acid
d. Nutrient malabsorption

Question 3

In alcoholic cirrhosis, hepatocellular damage is caused by:

a. acetaldehyde accumulation.
b. bile toxicity.
c. acidosis.
d. fatty infiltrations.

Question 4

Where does the nurse expect the obstruction to be in a patient with extrahepatic portal hypertension?

a. Sinusoids
b. Bile ducts
c. Hepatic portal vein
d. Hepatic artery

Question 5

Kwashiorkor is a severe dietary deficiency of: NURS 6501 Week 8 Discussion Essay Assignment - Walden

a. fat-soluble vitamins.
b. carbohydrates.
c. protein.
d. calcium and magnesium.

NURS 6501 Week 8 Discussion Essay Assignment - Walden

Question 6

A 27-year-old male presents with fever, GI bleeding, hepatomegaly, and transient joint pain. He reports that as a child he received blood transfusions following a motor vehicle accident. He also indicates he was vaccinated against hepatitis B. Which of the following types of hepatitis does the clinician think he most likely has? NURS 6501 Week 8 Discussion Essay Assignment - Walden

a. A
b. B
c. C
d. D

Question 7

Prolonged diarrhea is more serious in children than adults because:

a. children have lower adipose reserves.
b. fluid reserves are lower in children.
c. children have a lower metabolic rate.
d. children are more resistant to antimicrobial therapy.

Question 8

A 40-year-old male develops an intestinal obstruction related to protrusion of the intestine through the inguinal ring. This condition is referred to as:

a. Intussusception
b. A volvulus
c. A hernia
d. Adhesions

Question 9

A 60-year-old male presents with GI bleeding and abdominal pain. He reports that he takes NSAIDs daily to prevent heart attack. Tests reveal that he has a peptic ulcer. The most likely cause of this disease is: NURS 6501 Week 8 Discussion Essay Assignment - Walden

a. Increasing subepithelial bicarbonate production
b. Accelerating the H+ (proton) pump in parietal cells
c. Inhibiting mucosal prostaglandin synthesis
d. Stimulating a shunt of mucosal blood flow

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Question 10

Acute pancreatitis often manifests with pain to which of the following regions?

a. Right lower quadrant
b. Right upper quadrant
c. Epigastric
d. Suprapubic

Question 11

A 60-year-old male is diagnosed with cancer of the esophagus. Which of the following factors most likely contributed to his disease?

a. Reflux esophagitis
b. Intestinal parasites
c. Ingestion of salty foods
d. Frequent use of antacids

Question 12

The primary complication of enterocolitis associated with Hirschsprung disease is related to which finding? NURS 6501 Week 8 Discussion Essay Assignment - Walden

a. Fecal impaction
b. Pancreatic insufficiency
c. Hyperactive peristalsis
d. Ileal atresia

Question 13

The most common cause of chronic vascular insufficiency among the elderly is:

a. Anemia
b. Aneurysm
c. Lack of nutrition in gut lumen
d. Atherosclerosis

Question 14

The most common clinical manifestation of portal hypertension is _____ bleeding.

a. rectal
b. duodenal
c. esophageal
d. intestinal

Question 15

A 54-year-old male is diagnosed with peptic ulcer disease.This condition is most likely caused by:

a. Hereditary hormonal imbalances with high gastrin levels
b. Breaks in the mucosa and presence of corrosive secretions
c. Decreased vagal activity and vascular engorgement
d. Gastric erosions related to high ammonia levels and bile reflux

Question 16

The cardinal sign of pyloric stenosis caused by ulceration or tumors is: NURS 6501 Week 8 Discussion Essay Assignment - Walden

a. Constipation
b. Diarrhea
c. Vomiting
d. Heartburn

Question 17

A 55-year-old male died in a motor vehicle accident. Autopsy revealed an enlarged liver caused by fatty infiltration, testicular atrophy, and mild jaundice secondary to cirrhosis. The most likely cause of his condition is:

a. Bacterial infection
b. Viral infection
c. Alcoholism
d. Drug overdose

Question 18

Manifestations associated with hepatic encephalopathy from chronic liver disease are the result of:

a. hyperbilirubinemia and jaundice.
b. fluid and electrolyte imbalances.
c. impaired ammonia metabolism.
d. decreased cerebral blood flow.

Question 19

The most common disorder associated with upper GI bleeding is:

a. diverticulosis.
b. hemorrhoids.
c. esophageal varices.
d. cancer.

Question 20

A 3-month-old female develops colicky pain, abdominal distention, and diarrhea after drinking cow’s milk. The best explanation for her symptoms is: NURS 6501 Week 8 Discussion Essay Assignment - Walden

a. Deficiency of bile that stimulates digestive secretions and bowel motility
b. Excess of amylase, which increases the breakdown of starch and causes an osmotic diarrhea
c. Overgrowth of bacteria from undigested fat molecules, which leads to gas formation and de creased bowel motility
d. Excess of undigested lactose in her digestive tract, resulting in increased fluid movement into the digestive lumen and increased bowel motility

Question 21

A 55-year-old female has general symptoms of gallstones but is also jaundiced. IV cholangiography would most likely reveal that the gallstones are obstructing the:

a. Intrahepatic bile canaliculi
b. Gallbladder
c. Cystic duct
d. Common bile duct

Question 22

A 1-week-old female is brought to her pediatrician for abdominal distention and unstable temperature. Physical examination reveals bradycardia and apnea. Tests reveal hypoxic injury to the bowel resulting in bacterial invasion and perforation. This condition is referred to as: NURS 6501 Week 8 Discussion Essay Assignment - Walden

a. Infective enteropathy
b. Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC)
c. Mucoviscidosis
d. Ileus

Question 23

For the patient experiencing esophageal reflux, the nurse would expect which sphincter to be malfunctioning?

a. Pyloric
b. Lower esophageal
c. Upper esophageal
d. Gastric

Question 24

Cholecystitis is inflammation of the gallbladder wall usually caused by:

a. accumulation of bile in the hepatic duct.
b. obstruction of the cystic duct by a gall-stone.
c. accumulation of fat in the wall of the gallbladder.
d. viral infection of the gallbladder.

NURS 6501 Week 8 Discussion Essay Assignment - Walden

Question 25

A 6-month-old male infant is brought to the ER after the sudden development of abdominal pain, irritability, and vomiting followed by passing of “currant jelly” stool. Ultrasound reveals intestinal obstruction in which the ileum collapsed through the ileocecal valve and invaginated into the large intestine. This type of obstruction is referred to as: NURS 6501 Week 8 Discussion Essay Assignment - Walden

a. Prolapse
b. Pyloric stenosis
c. Intussusception
d. Imperforation

Question 26

A 22-year-old male underwent brain surgery to remove a tumor. Following surgery, he experienced a peptic ulcer. His ulcer is referred to as a(n) _____ ulcer.

a. Infectious
b. Cushing
c. Ischemic
d. Curling

Question 27

Chronic gastritis is classified according to the:

a. severity.
b. location of lesions.
c. patient's age.
d. signs and symptoms.

Question 28

Reflux esophagitis is defined as a(n): NURS 6501 Week 8 Discussion Essay Assignment - Walden

a. Immune response to gastroesophageal reflux
b. Inflammatory response to gastroesophageal reflux
c. Congenital anomaly
d. Secretory response to hiatal hernia

Question 29

The cardinal signs of small bowel obstruction are:

a. Vomiting and distention
b. Diarrhea and excessive thirst
c. Dehydration and epigastric pain
d. Abdominal pain and rectal bleeding

Question 30

The nurse assessing the patient with biliary atresia would expect to find which primary clinical manifestation?

a. Anemia
b. Jaundice
c. Hypobilirubinemia
d. Ascites

Question 31

A 20-year-old male was recently diagnosed with lactose intolerance. He eats an ice cream cone and develops diarrhea. His diarrhea can be classified as _____ diarrhea. NURS 6501 Week 8 Discussion Essay Assignment - Walden

a. Motility
b. Hypotonic
c. Secretory
d. Osmotic

NURS 6501 Week 8 Discussion Essay Assignment - Walden

Question 32

Which of the following symptoms would help a health care provider distinguish between ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease?

a. Pattern of remission/exacerbations
b. Abdominal pain
c. Malabsorption
d. Diarrhea

Question 33

A 45-year-old male complains of heartburn after eating and difficulty swallowing. He probably has:

a. Pyloric stenosis
b. Hiatal hernia
c. Gastric cancer
d. Achalasia

Question 34

The exocrine portion of the pancreas contains: NURS 6501 Week 8 Discussion Essay Assignment - Walden

a. alpha cells.
b. beta cells.
c. acinar cells.
d. islets of Langerhans.

Question 35

Outbreaks of hepatitis _____ often occur in young children attending day care centers and can be attributed to poor hand washing.

a. A
b. B
c. C
d. D

NURS 6501 Week 8 Discussion Essay Assignment - Walden