Research Methods in Psychology Investigating Human Behavior Test Paper.

Research Methods in Psychology Investigating Human Behavior Test Paper.

View Sample Chapter Below:

 

  1. A construct is best described as a

 

  1. Directly observable entity
  2. Concrete entity

*c. Theoretical entity

  1. Hypothesized entity

 

 

  1. Meredith can measure happiness by counting participants’ smiles, by having peers fill out reports about participants, or by asking participants to complete self-reports. These options are _______ of the _______of happiness. Research Methods in Psychology Investigating Human Behavior Test Paper.

 

  1. conceptual definitions; construct

*b. operational definitions; construct

  1. conceptual definitions; variable
  2. operational definitions; variable

 

 

  1. Kimi operationalizes aggression as participants’ scores on a self-report scale. Candice operationalizes aggression as increases in blood pressure. Candice’s operationalization has

 

  1. Fewer variables
  2. More variables
  3. Less ecological validity

*d. Greater ecological validity

 

 

  1. Josh is studying how options affect satisfaction. He presents participants with either ten different cookies or two different cookies. Participants choose a cookie and then rate how satisfied they are with their selection on a scale from one to ten. In this example, the independent variable is

 

*a. The number of cookies

  1. Options
  2. Satisfaction scores
  3. The taste of the cookie

 

 

  1. Josh is studying how options affect satisfaction. He presents participants with either ten different cookies or two different cookies. Participants choose a cookie and then rate how satisfied they are with their selection on a scale from one to ten. In this example, the dependent variable is

 

  1. The number of cookies
  2. Options

*c. Satisfaction scores

  1. The taste of the cookies

 

 

  1. Ava discovers that the effect of personality type on stress depends on whether individuals meditate. In other words, having a Type A personality predicts high stress for those individuals who do not meditate. At the same time, Type A personality is not related to stress for those individuals who engage in regular meditation. In this example, meditation is

 

  1. An independent variable
  2. An dependent variable

*c. An intervening variable

  1. A confound

ORDER PLAGIARISM-FREE PAPER NOW

 

  1. When using different measures to measure the same construct, researchers want these different measures to produce

 

*a. Convergent results

  1. Divergent results
  2. Inverse results
  3. Intervening results

 

 

  1. This is the quantification of an object or event according to a specific rule.

 

*a. Measurement

  1. Analysis
  2. Theory development
  3. Objectivity

 

 

  1. As part of her survey, Lauren asks participants to indicate their gender (male or female). She collects this data on which type of measurement scale?

 

*a. Nominal

  1. Ordinal
  2. Interval
  3. Ratio

 

 

  1. Time on a stop watch is an example of which type of measurement scale?

 

  1. Nominal
  2. Ordinal
  3. Interval

*d. Ratio

 

 

  1. Jackson has people rate their parents’ physical attractiveness on a scale of 1 to 7. This measurement scale is best described as

 

  1. Nominal

*b. Ordinal

  1. Interval
  2. Ratio

 

 

  1. Bethany measures participants’ body temperature (using Fahrenheit) before and after exercise. She is using which scale of measurement?

 

  1. Nominal
  2. Ordinal

*c. Interval

  1. Ratio

 

 

  1. The attributes of nominal variables must be

 

  1. Numerical
  2. Dichotomous
  3. Additive

*d. Exhaustive

 

 

  1. Age is an example of the ____ level of measurement.

 

  1. Nominal
  2. Ordinal
  3. Interval

*d. Ratio

 

 

  1. This is a school of psychology that uses tests as objective measures of the mind and mental processes.

 

  1. Nonparametrics
  2. Parametrics

*c. Psychometrics

  1. Psychophysics

 

 

  1. In a set of normally-distributed scores, approximately 95% of the population falls within

 

  1. One standard deviation above and below the mean

*b. Two standard deviations above and below the mean

  1. Three standard deviations above and below the mean
  2. Four standard deviations above and below the mean

 

 

  1. Compared to unreliable measures, reliable measures are affected

 

  1. more by chance
  2. more by measurement error
  3. less by changes in the construct

*d. less by measurement error

 

 

  1. To establish this type of reliability, researchers measure a construct using a specific method and then, after a certain period of time has passed, measure this construct again using the same method.

 

  1. Interobserver reliability
  2. Interitem reliability

*c. Test-retest reliability

  1. Split-half reliability

 

 

  1. Having two researchers observe a behavior, code it separately, and then compare how they rated the behavior is an example of

 

  1. Test-retest reliability
  2. Interitem reliability

*c. Interobserver reliability

  1. Split-half reliability

 

 

  1. All of the following tell us about a measure’s internal consistency, EXCEPT

 

  1. Split-half reliability
  2. Interitem reliability
  3. Cronbach’s alpha

*d. Test-retest reliability

 

 

  1. Alan reads through the statements of his new measure on sociality and believes that it appears valid. This suggests the measure has

 

*a. Face validity

  1. Content validity
  2. Criterion validity
  3. Construct validity

 

 

  1. Nora asks participants fill out a self-report survey on their current feelings of stress. At the same time, in order to validate her survey, she also samples participants’ saliva and measures levels of stress hormones. Nora compares her scale to the stress to establish

 

  1. Face validity

*b. Criterion validity

  1. Predictive validity
  2. Divergent validity

 

 

  1. Gabriella develops a set of questions designed to measure work place motivation. She distributes the survey. Six months from now, to validate her measure, she will see how well scores from her scale predict the number of voluntary overtime hours people work. This will help establish

 

  1. Face validity
  2. Concurrent validity

*c. Predictive validity

  1. Construct validity

 

Research Methods in Psychology Investigating Human Behavior Test Paper.

  1. To establish discriminant validity, researchers must show

 

  1. That similar traits measured in the same way are highly correlated
  2. That different traits measured in the same way are highly correlated
  3. That similar traits measured in the same way are unrelated

*d. That different traits measured in the same way are unrelated

 

 

  1. More than other types of validity, social desirability is often a concern if a study has obvious ___ validity.

 

*a. Face

  1. Predictive
  2. Concurrent
  3. Convergent

 

 

  1. Constructs are useful in scientific research because they can be directly observed.

 

  1. True

*b. False

Research Methods in Psychology Investigating Human Behavior Test Paper.

 

  1. A scientific theory is valid to the extent that it predicts, explains, and describes the relations between relevant independent and dependent variables.

 

*a. True

  1. False

 

Research Methods in Psychology Investigating Human Behavior Test Paper.

  1. Dichotomous variables are variables that have two or more values, such as ethnicity.

 

  1. True

*b. False

 

 

  1. Ordinal, interval, and ratio scales are quantitative, whereas the nominal level of measurement is qualitative.

 

*a. True

  1. False

 

 

  1. Non parametric statistics are primarily used with variables measured on an interval or ratio scale.

 

  1. True

*b. False

 

Research Methods in Psychology Investigating Human Behavior Test Paper.

  1. The shape of a normal curve is bilaterally symmetric with one peak in the middle.

 

*a. True

  1. False

 

 

  1. In measurement, validity is a prerequisite for reliability.

 

  1. True

*b. False

 

 

  1. Factor analysis is a “top-down” deductive procedure that enables research to identify distinct dimensions of a construct.

 

  1. True

*b. False

 

 

  1. Convergent validity and discriminant validity are two types of criterion validity.

 

  1. True

*b. False

 

 

  1. In order to establish construct validity, researchers must demonstrate both convergent and discriminant validity. Research Methods in Psychology Investigating Human Behavior Test Paper.

 

*a. True

  1. False

 

 

  1. Consider the construct “hungry.” Identify three operational definitions for hungry. Why is it appropriate to use multiple methods of measurement?

 

Correct Answer:

Hungry could be operationally defined as the number of cookies participants eat; the self-report of hunger on a scale of 1-10; the time since a participant last ate (answers will vary). It is important to use multiple measures because it is the only way to understand the true nature of a construct (p. 95). As a theoretical concept, hunger cannot be directly measured (p. 84) and therefore using only one operational definition limits understanding.

 

 

  1. Compare and contrast the four levels of measurement and provide an example of each.

 

Correct Answer:

The nominal level of measurement is the only qualitative level. Nominal variables have attributes that have no mathematical interpretation (p. 87). Gender or ethnicity, for example, are examples of nominal variables. Ordinal scales assign numbers to responses; higher or lower numbers mean more or less of the variable they represent (p. 88). Measuring optimism on a scale of 1-5 is an example of an ordinal scale. Interval scales also use numbers to represent responses and these numbers also represent “greater than” or “less than.” However, instead of simply showing the relative rank of responses, interval scales include an additional feature. The distance between any two points is a known size (p. 90); Fahrenheit temperature is an example of an interval scale. Finally, the ratio scale includes all of the features of an interval scale, but also has a real zero. Age, height, and weight are all examples of the ratio level of measurement (p. 91). (Student examples will vary). Research Methods in Psychology Investigating Human Behavior Test Paper.

ORDER PLAGIARISM-FREE PAPER NOW

 

  1. What is random error of measurement, why is it a problem, and how can researchers combat it?

 

Correct Answer:

Random error of measurement refers to the variation in any response that is not reflecting the construct of interest. This variation can be the result of any other influence or factor. Random error of measurement is a problem in any given response (p. 97). If the goal of a measure is to accurately reflect a construct of interest, then the goal is to minimize error. Research Methods in Psychology Investigating Human Behavior Test Paper.High random error means low internal consistency. In developing a measure, researchers can add questions to increase the internal consistency of their measure and combat the problem of random error. Adding more questions effectively allows the random error associated with a particular question to be cancelled out by the random error associated with responses to the other questions (p. 97). Research Methods in Psychology Investigating Human Behavior Test Paper.

 

 

  1. What is split-half reliability and what is gained by establishing this type of reliability?

 

Correct Answer:

Split-half reliability is a used to establish the internal consistency of a measure. The process involves dividing all of the items of a measure into two groups (e.g., first half and second half). For each participant, the research computes the score separately for each half of the items. Scores can then be correlated across all participants; scores that are highly correlated would suggest an internally consistent or internally reliable measure (p. 96).

 

 

  1. Compare and contrast concurrent and convergent validity and give an example of each.

 

Correct Answer:

Both concurrent validity and convergent validity are tools researchers can use to show that a measure is really measuring what it is intended to measure. Concurrent validity is a type of criterion validity. It is established when researchers show that a measure produces scores that correspond highly with scores on a criterion that is measured at the same time (p. 101). For example, researchers might validate a self-report scale of impulsivity by administering it to a group of adolescents and then comparing the scores to records on classroom misconduct. Unlike concurrent validity, convergent validity helps establishes construct validity. Convergent validity is established when two different methods are used to measure one construct and these two different methods “converge” or correlate with each other (p. 101). If a researcher is attempting to validate a new self-report measure of aggression, she might compare scores on her scale with behavioral observations of aggression. This would provide empirical evidence for convergent validity.

 

 

  1. Suppose women score, on average, 15 points below men on a certain intelligence test. Define psychometrics and explain how these results should be interpreted in terms of biological and/or cultural and environmental influences. Research Methods in Psychology Investigating Human Behavior Test Paper.

 

Correct Answer:

Psychometrics is a school of psychology that uses tests as objective measures of the mind and mental processes (p. 92). Too much meaning should not be attributed to the differences in scores derived from psychometric tests of intelligence; they should be interpreted with respect to culture and context. In the example above, the results do not mean that men are biologically or genetically more intelligent than women. First, intelligence is a multi-faceted construct and can be defined and measured in many ways. Research Methods in Psychology Investigating Human Behavior Test Paper.This test may aim to measure IQ, social intelligence, or scholastic aptitude; because there are many types of intelligence, results should be interpreted specifically for the type of intelligence that researchers intended to measure. More importantly, in contrast to the hereditarian view of intelligence, environment matters the most when looking at differences between groups of people. Genes together with the environment will influence individual differences, but only culture and environmental influences can explain between-group differences (p. 103). This means that men and women may be similar in their biologically-based intelligence, but that certain environmental or social factors have limited women and created the difference in scores.

 

 

  1. What is reliability and validity? Why are tests for reliability and validity necessary? What is the relation between reliability and validity?

 

Correct Answer:

Reliability is the consistency of a measure (p. 101). Assuming that the construct is not rapidly changing, reliability is expected for successful measurement of a given construct. We need to test for reliability in order to show that our measure provides consistent results; highly inconsistent results would suggest that we are not effectively measuring the construct, rather, the scores are being affected by error. Measurement validity is how well a measure is measuring what it is intended to measure (p. 106). Without establishing measurement validity, we cannot assume that scores relate to our construct of interest. Reliability is a prerequisite for validity; a measure cannot be measuring what it intends to unless it also produces consistent results (assuming the construct is not rapidly changing). At the same time, a measure can be reliable without being valid. Effective measures are both reliable and valid. Research Methods in Psychology Investigating Human Behavior Test Paper.

 

 

  1. Many psychology students become frustrated when they are trying to think of new research questions; they bemoan that “all the good questions are taken!” Using an example to support your discussion, explain the relation between theoretical constructs and experimentation and describe how you might respond to such a statement.

 

Correct Answer:

Theoretical constructs are abstract entities intimately connected to theories. They are used to help describe, explain, and predict different findings (p. 105). Constructs are not directly measurable and they cannot be fully captured by any one measurement. The construct of self-esteem, for example, is not completely understood through a self-report scale.Research Methods in Psychology Investigating Human Behavior Test Paper. Constructs include many different dimensions, any one of which can be translated into a useful, measurable variable that can be studied. New operational definitions of a construct add to our understanding of that construct. Indeed, because constructs cannot be measured directly, they requireexperimentation that includes operational definitions that are thought to create the conditions that reveal and reflect the construct (p. 92). Essentially, experimentation is necessary to empirically validate a construct. At the same time, there is not one experiment that can fully describe a construct. To the student who believes all questions are taken, it might be useful to explain how through creativity and thoughtful reflection, new operational definitions of a construct can be generated and used to explore the construct. Research Methods in Psychology Investigating Human Behavior Test Paper.