Sensation and Perception Essay Paper.

Sensation and Perception Essay Paper.

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Which of the following reflects a distinction between the process of sensation and the process of perception?
a. Sensation is not necessary for perception but perception is necessary for sensation.
b. Sensation occurs at the level of the brain, while perception occurs at the level of the mind.
c. Sensation reflects reality, while perception is entirely subjective.
d. Sensation occurs at the level of the sense organs, while perception occurs at the level of the brain.

 

Sensation and Perception Essay Paper.

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 138            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. Light has entered Jeff’s eye and has stimulated receptors there. Which of the following terms describes this process?
a. detection
b. perception
c. transduction
d. sensation

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 138            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. A neural signal from Mary’s taste bud has travelled to her cortex and she experiences enjoyment of a sweet flavour. Which of the following terms describes this process?
a. sensation
b. transduction
c. detection
d. perception

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 138            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. What is your absolute threshold?
a. the point at which you detect any portion of a stimulus
b. the point at which you detect a stimulus that registers on sensory memory
c. the point at which you detect any stimulus set point
d. the point at which you detect a stimulus about half of the time

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 139            BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Werner was having his hearing tested, and a number of the tones that were presented were so faint he was not able to detect them. What can you say about the faint sounds?
a. They fall below Werner’s absolute threshold for sound.
b. They cause more inhibitory than excitatory PSPs.
c. They cause action potentials that were too weak to reach the terminal buttons.
d. They fall below Werner’s adaptation level for sound.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 139            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. Juanita was drinking some warm punch and she thought she could just detect a faint taste of nutmeg in the punch. When she took another sip the taste wasn’t there. On the third sip she could just make out the taste of nutmeg again. What could you say about the taste of nutmeg in this situation?
a. It falls just below her taste constancy level.
b. It produces inhibitory potentials rather than excitatory potentials.
c. It is just at her absolute threshold for taste.
d. It produces action potentials that were too weak to reach the terminal buttons.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 139            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. Giovanni was watching the night sky on a clear evening in November. He noticed that sometimes when he looked directly overhead he could detect a very faint star. A few minutes later it seemed that the star had disappeared, and then it “appeared” again. How would you describe the light from the star, in this case?
a. It produces action potentials that were too weak to reach the terminal buttons.
b. It produces inhibitory potentials rather than excitatory potentials.
c. It falls just below Giovanni’s level for perceptual invariance.
d. It is just at Giovanni’s absolute threshold for light.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 139            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. Which of the following is being measured if a subject is presented with a series of light bulb pairs of different wattages and is asked whether the members of each pair differ in brightness?
a. subject’s visual acuity
b. subject’s absolute threshold for brightness
c. subject’s just noticeable difference for brightness
d. physical intensity difference between the two lights

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 140            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. If a 100-Hz tone had to be increased to 110 Hz for a subject to just notice the difference, what would you change a 1000-Hz tone to, in order for that subject to notice the difference?
a. 1010 Hz
b. 1050 Hz
c. 1100 Hz
d. 1200 Hz

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 140            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. Evelyn turned the thermostat up from 68 degrees to 70 degrees; however, she doesn’t think it feels any warmer and she wants to turn it up even higher. Her roommate thinks that it is now too hot, and she wants to turn the thermostat back down. How does Evelyn’s just-noticeable-difference compare to her roommate’s?
a. Evelyn’s is smaller.
b. Evelyn’s is lower.
c. Evelyn’s is larger.
d. Evelyn’s is higher.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 140            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. Raul is making potato soup. His roommate tastes it and tells Raul it is great, but Raul thinks it needs more salt. He adds just a little salt, and thinks the soup now tastes perfect. However, his roommate tastes it again and tells Raul that the soup is ruined because it is too salty. Which of the following is most accurate?
a. Raul’s roommate has a higher absolute threshold than does Raul.
b. Raul has more taste cells on the back of his tongue than does his roommate.
c. Raul is a nontaster.
d. Raul’s roommate can detect a smaller just noticeable difference than Raul can.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 140            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. When Celeste was playing her stereo at 40 decibels and she turned it up to 44 decibels, she could notice that it was louder. If Celeste’s stereo were playing at 80 decibels, what should her just noticeable difference be?
a. 2 decibels, half as much as it was at 40 decibels
b. 4 decibels, the same as it was at 40 decibels
c. 6 decibels, 50 percent more than it was at 40 decibels
d. 8 decibels, twice as much as it was at 40 decibels

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 140            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. You have a lamp with a three-way light bulb. You can use the light at 50 watts, 100 watts, or 150 watts. When you change between settings, which of the following changes will be perceived as a larger increase in brightness?
a. from 50 to 100 watts
b. from 100 to 150 watts
c. both changes will result in an equivalent difference
d. it would depend on whether there is any additional light present in the room

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 140            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. Which of the following is most accurate regarding our inner measurements of sensory experiences?
a. There is generally a one-to-one correspondence with the physical intensity of the stimulus.
b. Although there is a one-to-one correspondence with the physical intensity of the stimulus for vision, there is no similar correspondence for hearing.
c. There is no one-to-one correspondence with the physical intensity of the stimulus, especially at the higher intensity levels.
d. There is a one-to-one correspondence with the physical intensity of the stimulus at lower intensity levels, but not at higher intensity levels.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 140            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. In the signal-detection method, what do we call it when a subject detects a stimulus when no stimulus is actually present?
a. hit
b. correct rejection
c. miss
d. false alarm

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 140            BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Which type of signal-detection error becomes more likely when the expectation of a stimulus is weak?
a. correct rejection
b. miss
c. accurate hit
d. false alarm

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 140            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. In signal detection, which type of response is more likely if you have a strong expectation that a signal is present?
a. false alarm
b. miss
c. correct rejection
d. noise hit

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 140            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. Jerry, a nuclear operator, must monitor 50 different gauges that keep track of various aspects of the nuclear reactor. Which of the following theories provides the most specific predictions for Jerry’s likelihood of detecting any changes or problems?
a. signal-detection
b. Fechner’s law
c. pragnanz
d. Weber’s law

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 140            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. Joan was sitting talking with some friends when she suddenly left the room to check on her baby. She was sure she heard little Emily cry out, but when she checked, Emily was sleeping peacefully. What would you call Joan’s response based on signal detection theory?
a. hit
b. false alarm
c. correct rejection
d. miss

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 140            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. Dalton was sitting in the hallway outside his chemistry class. Some students said they thought they could smell smoke, but Dalton didn’t smell anything. When they all checked the lab to see if there were any problems, everything was fine and nothing was burning. What would you call Dalton’s response based on signal detection theory?
a. false alarm
b. hit
c. miss
d. correct rejection

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 140            BLM:  Higher order

 

 

  1. Your criterion for “hearing” mysterious noises at night may change after a rash of burglaries in your neighbourhood. Which of the following best explains this change?
a. Fechner’s law
b. signal-detection theory
c. Weber’s law
d. sensory adaptation

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 140            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. What does “subliminal” mean?
a. deceptive
b. below threshold
c. barely perceptible
d. superimposed

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 141            BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Which of the following statements about subliminal perception is most accurate?
a. Subliminal perception is possible only if sensory adaptation has taken place.
b. Although subliminal perception was once dismissed by scientists as preposterous, recent evidence suggests it has some effects on behaviour.
c. Scientists have conclusively demonstrated that perception simply cannot take place without conscious awareness.
d. Recent research suggests that subliminal messages can be quite persuasive in convincing us to buy products we don’t want.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 142            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. What have researchers typically found when they have attempted to demonstrate subliminal perception effects in the real world?
a. Such effects are substantial and a potential cause for public concern.
b. People are much more likely to be influenced by “positive” subliminal stimuli (e.g., self-help tapes) than “negative” ones (e.g., subliminal advertising).
c. People are much more likely to be influenced by “negative” subliminal stimuli than “positive” ones.
d. Such effects are so weak as to be of little, if any, practical importance.

 

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ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 142            BLM:  Remember

 

  1. What will eventually occur if you stare at an unchanging image for a long time?
a. sensory adaptation
b. perceptual inversion
c. perceptual agnosia
d. sensory overload

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 142            BLM:  Higher order

 

 

  1. What is sensory adaptation?
a. perceptual inversion principle
b. increase in sensitivity after prolonged stimulation
c. decline in sensitivity after prolonged stimulation
d. weakening of a neurotransmitter substance

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 142            BLM:  Remember

 

  1. You enter a room and notice a distinctive new odour. After a bit of time you no longer notice the odour. What phenomenon does this illustrate?
a. sensory adaptation
b. sensory novelty
c. progressive desensitization
d. sensory contrast

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 142            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. Yaniv has been working at his computer for the past two hours, and the hum that he found so annoying when he started no longer bothers him. Which of the following processes is illustrated by the change in Yaniv’s sensitivity to the computer noise?
a. adjusting just noticeable differences
b. sensory adaptation
c. perceptual assimilation
d. perceptual invariance

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 142            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. Sonja put on a new watch this morning and found it uncomfortable because it was so much heavier than her old watch. However, at noon, when a friend asks her if she knows what time it is, Sonja finds she has forgotten she is even wearing the watch. Which of the following processes is illustrated by the change in Sonja’s sensitivity to the pressure of the watch?
a. perceptual assimilation
b. perceptual invariance
c. adjusting just noticeable differences
d. sensory adaptation

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 142            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. Which of the following CANNOT be explained by sensory adaptation?
a. feeling comfortable in a cold swimming pool after being in for a few minutes
b. getting used to the smell of the perfume you are wearing
c. getting used to the touch of your clothes on your skin
d. feeling no sensation in a foot that has lost circulation

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 142            BLM:  Higher order

 

Darcy is studying at the kitchen table. Her brothers are watching the hockey game in the living room. When Darcy first sat down to study, the noise of the game was distracting, but now she doesn’t really notice it at all. As she reads through her notes, Darcy also doesn’t seem to notice all the little spelling errors she made when she was writing them down in class. Instead, she reads the words and sentences clearly and is able to focus on the concepts and examples rather than her mistakes. After a while, Darcy reaches out and grabs her water glass and takes a drink. Just then, her brothers started yelling when their team scores. Startled, Darcy dropped the glass onto her baby toe which sends pain shooting up her leg. Although Darcy is momentarily distracted, she goes back to her books and is focused on her studies again within about 20 minutes.

 

  1. Which process allows Darcy to not be distracted by the hockey game?
a. Gestalt continuation
b. neural fatigue
c. sensory adaptation
d. selective attention

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 142            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. Which perceptual process allows Darcy to read her notes without noticing small errors?
a. linguistic adaptation
b. bottom-up processing
c. top-down processing
d. sensory adaptation

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 160            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. Which of the following brain areas is critical when Darcy reaches out for her water glass?
a. dorsal stream
b. primary visual cortex
c. periaqueductal gray
d. temporal lobe

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 169            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. Which of the following increases led to Darcy being startled when Darcy’s brothers started yelling?
a. frequency of the sound
b. amplitude of the sound
c. purity of the sound
d. timbre of the sound

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 171            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. Which type of nerve fibres were responsible for the immediate sensation when Darcy felt pain in her baby toe?
a. C fibres
b. A-delta fibres
c. ungated thalamic fibres
d. periaqueductal fibres

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 182            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. What aspect of perception is affected by the wavelength of light?
a. saturation
b. light purity
c. brightness
d. colour

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 144            BLM:  Remember

 

  1. What affects our perception of the brightness of a colour?
a. saturation of light waves
b. purity of light waves
c. amplitude of light waves
d. wavelength of light waves

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 144            BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Jose is wearing a blue shirt, and Evan is wearing a red shirt. What is the difference between the two shirts, in terms of light waves?
a. Jose’s reflects higher amplitude light waves than Evan’s.
b. Jose’s reflects shorter light waves than Evan’s.
c. Jose’s reflects longer light waves than Evan’s.
d. Jose’s reflects lower amplitude light waves than Evan’s.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 144            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. What aspect of visual perception is responsive to differences in the amplitude of light waves?
a. colour
b. purity
c. saturation
d. brightness

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 144            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. What aspect of visual perception is responsive to differences in the purity of light waves?
a. saturation
b. colour constancies
c. hue
d. brightness

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 144            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. What does the lens in the eye do?
a. It exerts muscular control over the amount of light entering the eye.
b. It bends entering light rays and focuses them onto the retina.
c. It converts light energy into neural energy.
d. It is the part of the eye that gives it its colour.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 144            BLM:  Remember

 

 

  1. As people age, the lens of the eye loses its ability to accommodate, and it tends to remain flat instead of becoming fat and round. What does this suggest about the effects of aging on vision?
a. We become less likely to detect differences in light purity.
b. We become more likely to detect differences in brightness and hue.
c. We lose the ability to focus on objects that are close.
d. We lose the ability to focus on objects in the distance.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 144            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. What is the structure that controls the size of the pupil?
a. lens
b. vitreous humour
c. cornea
d. iris

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 144            BLM:  Remember

 

  1. What changes in size, in order to regulate the amount of light that enters the eye?
a. cornea
b. pupil
c. retina
d. lens

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 144            BLM:  Remember

 

  1. What happens to the pupil of the eye in bright sunlight?
a. it constricts
b. it is larger than it would be in dim light
c. it dilates
d. it closes

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 144            BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Isaiah is having his eyes checked. The doctor has put drops in Isaiah’s eyes that will cause the pupils to open wide. What will happen to Isaiah’s vision as the drops begin to work?
a. His vision will start to become quite blurry.
b. He will lose some of his colour vision.
c. His vision will become extremely sharp and clear.
d. Colours will appear to be “super” saturated.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 144            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. What happens to the pupil of the eye in dim light?
a. It is dilated, producing a sharper image.
b. It is dilated, producing an image that is not as sharp.
c. It is constricted, producing an image that is not as sharp.
d. It is constricted, producing a sharper image.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 144            BLM:  Higher order

 

 

  1. Which of the following processes acts to compensate for sensory adaptation?
a. transduction
b. saccades
c. dilation
d. lens accommodation

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 145            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. Where is the optic disk?
a. where the visual fields from both eyes merge
b. where the optic nerve exits the retina
c. immediately in front of the lens
d. where light enters the eye

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 146            BLM:  Remember

 

  1. What is the blind spot in the eye?
a. where the optic nerve exits the back of the eye
b. the point at which ganglion cells synapse with bipolar cells
c. a neural defect that leads to colour blindness
d. where photoreceptor cells do not “bleach”

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 146            BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Petra looked directly into a very bright light and damaged her retina. The ophthalmologist has told her that she has sustained massive damage to her cones, but for the most part her rods have not been affected. Which of the following aspects of Petra’s vision is likely to be deficient?
a. colour vision
b. depth perception
c. vision in low illumination
d. peripheral vision

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 146            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. Imagine that biologists have discovered an animal that has eyes very similar to human eyes, but that the only receptor cells in the retina are rods; there are no cones. What would you expect about this animal’s vision, based on what is known about human vision?
a. It would be able to detect extremely fine details.
b. It would have poor peripheral vision.
c. It would have poor vision in low illumination.
d. It would have no colour vision.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 146            BLM:  Higher order

 

 

  1. Imagine that biologists have discovered an animal that has eyes very similar to human eyes, but that the only receptor cells in the retina are cones; there are no rods. What would you expect about this animal’s vision, based on what is known about human vision?
a. It would have poor peripheral vision.
b. It would have poor visual acuity.
c. It would have excellent vision in dim light.
d. It could not see in colour.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 146            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. Devin has contracted a very rare eye disease. The ophthalmologist has told him that he has sustained massive damage to his rods, but for the most part his cones have not been affected. Which of the following aspects of Devin’s vision is likely to be deficient?
a. vision in bright illumination
b. peripheral vision
c. colour vision
d. detecting differences in wavelengths of light

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 146            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. Which of the following techniques would allow you to maximize visual acuity at night?
a. Close one eye.
b. Blink your eyes several times to hasten dark adaptation.
c. Turn your head at a slight angle to the object.
d. Look directly at the object you wish to see.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 147            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. Fifteen minutes after Zigfried left the brightly lit hallway and entered the dark passageway, what would you expect about his dark adaptation?
a. It is still taking place in both his rods and his cones.
b. It is complete in his rods, but still taking place in his cones.
c. It is complete in both his rods and cones.
d. It is complete in his cones, but still taking place in his rods.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 147            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. What does the receptive field of a visual cell refer to?
a. a length of time necessary for the cell to integrate information at the ganglion level of the retina
b. a cell’s degree of sensitivity or receptivity
c. a range of wavelengths of light the cell reacts to
d. a collection of rod and cone receptors that funnel signals to a particular visual cell in the retina

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 148            BLM:  Remember

 

 

  1. What should a ganglion cell have in order to have good visual acuity?
a. direct transmission to the visual cortex
b. direct transmission to the thalamus
c. a large receptive field
d. a small receptive field

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 148            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. Visual fields have a centre-surround arrangement. What does this allow the eye to be?
a. a contrast detector
b. an absolute-intensity detector
c. insensitive at low illumination
d. insensitive to low amplitude light waves

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 148            BLM:  Remember

 

  1. In visual processing, when does lateral antagonism occur?
a. when neural activity in a cell increases activity in surrounding cells
b. when cones are activated and rods are inactivated
c. when neural activity in a cell opposes activity in surrounding cells
d. when rods are activated and cones are inactivated

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 148            BLM:  Remember

 

  1. What is the optic chiasm?
a. the portion of the lateral geniculate nucleus that is responsible for coordination of sensory input
b. the point at which the optic nerves cross over one another before projecting to the occipital lobe
c. the portion of the visual cortex responsible for feature detection
d. the gap between the right occipital lobe and the left occipital lobe

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 149            BLM:  Remember

 

  1. What does parallel processing in the visual pathways suggest about separate neural channels?
a. They aren’t necessary for vision.
b. They send the same information to many different places.
c. They extract different information from visual inputs.
d. They provide safety backups for each other.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 149            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. If the pathway through your superior colliculus were not functioning correctly, what would be difficult for you to do?
a. perceiving depth
b. integrating visual and auditory information
c. distinguishing colours
d. detecting differences in texture

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 149            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. If the parvocellular system within your thalamus were not functioning correctly, what would you find difficult to do?
a. distinguishing colours
b. perceiving depth
c. localizing sounds
d. detecting movement

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 149            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. If the magnocellular system within your thalamus were not functioning correctly, what would you find difficult to do?
a. localizing sounds
b. perceiving brightness
c. distinguishing colours
d. perceiving fine details

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 149            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. In which of the following lobes would you find the primary visual cortex?
a. frontal
b. occipital
c. temporal
d. parietal

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 150            BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Which of the following depicts an accurate pathway for neural signals leaving the retina?
a. optic chiasm, optic nerve, occipital lobe, lateral geniculate nucleus
b. optic nerve, optic chiasm, thalamus, primary visual cortex
c. optic nerve, lateral geniculate nucleus, optic chiasm, occipital lobe
d. optic chiasm, medial geniculate nucleus, primary visual cortex, thalamus

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 150            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. What are the cells in the visual cortex that respond selectively to specific details of complex stimuli?
a. hypocomplex cells
b. selective detectors
c. feature detectors
d. ganglion cells

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 151            BLM:  Remember

 

  1. What are the cells in the visual cortex that respond to a line of the correct width, oriented at the correct angle, and located in the correct position in its receptive field?
a. triarchic
b. binary
c. hypercomplex
d. simple

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 151            BLM:  Remember

 

 

  1. What do complex cells in the visual cortex respond to?
a. specific widths and orientation of lines anywhere in their receptive field
b. different colours in their receptive field
c. figure-ground disparity in their receptive field
d. circles of light anywhere in their receptive field

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 151            BLM:  Remember

 

  1. A microelectrode is recording the activity from a single cell in the visual cortex of a cat. The cell begins to fire rapidly when a line is presented at a 45-degree angle directly in front of the cat, but stops firing when the line is shifted to a position that is off to the left. What type of cell is likely being monitored in this case?
a. complex cell
b. simple cell
c. cell in the superior colliculus
d. hypercomplex cell

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 151            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. A microelectrode is recording the activity from a single cell in the visual cortex of a cat. The cell begins to fire rapidly when a vertical line sweeps across the visual field to the left, but stops firing when the same line sweeps back across the visual field to the right. What type of cell is likely being monitored in this case?
a. cell in the parvocellular channel
b. simple cell
c. hypercomplex cell
d. complex cell

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 151            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. After visual input has been processed in the primary visual cortex, signals are processed further along a number of pathways. Which of the following types of visual information would be processed in the temporal lobe, along the ventral stream?
a. movement
b. brightness and contours
c. faces
d. complexity and contrast

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 151            BLM:  Remember

 

  1. After visual input has been processed in the primary visual cortex, signals are processed further along a number of pathways. Where is information about object recognition processed?
a. temporal lobes
b. occipital lobes
c. frontal lobes
d. parietal lobes

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 151            BLM:  Remember

 

 

  1. Where does the ventral stream project to after leaving the primary visual cortex?
a. basal forebrain
b. cerebellum
c. temporal lobes
d. parietal lobes

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 151            BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Charley has visual agnosia and is unable to recognize common, everyday objects. Damage to which component of the visual system does this condition most likely result from?
a. ventral stream
b. feature detectors
c. superior colliculus
d. lateral geniculate nucleus

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 152            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. In a vision experiment, subjects are asked to view stimuli that include vertical black-and-red bars, as well as horizontal black-and-green bars, for a few minutes. Given what you know about the McCullough effect, what afterimages should the subjects see when presented with vertical or horizontal arrays of black-and-white bars?
a. Vertical white bars would appear green and horizontal white bars would appear pink.
b. All white bars will be seen as a pale purple.
c. Vertical white bars would appear pink and horizontal white bars would appear green.
d. Vertical white bars would appear blue and horizontal white bars would appear yellow.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 152            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. While finger painting, Imran mixed yellow paint and blue paint and ended up with green. Which mixing method did Imran use?
a. subtractive colour mixing
b. trichromatic mixing
c. additive colour mixing
d. multiplicative colour mixing

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 153            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. What type of colour would be produced if you mixed many varied paints together?
a. dull, dark colour
b. reddish-green colour
c. bright, light colour
d. rich, saturated colour

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 154            BLM:  Higher order

 

 

  1. If you project a red, a green, and a blue light into space, what type of light will be perceived at the point where the three lights cross?
a. ultraviolet light
b. infrared light
c. black light
d. white light

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 154            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. If you mix red, green, and blue paint, what colour will you get?
a. orange
b. white
c. purple
d. black

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 154            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. At the musical he attended over the weekend, Andrew noticed that whenever the red and green spotlights overlapped, they seemed to change to a yellow spotlight. Which principle explains this perception?
a. hypercomplex feature detection
b. subtractive colour mixing
c. additive colour mixing
d. opponent-processing of colours

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 154            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. Television sets are able to recreate the entire visible spectrum by additively mixing three primary colours. Which theory of human colour vision is similar to this mechanism?
a. opponent-process
b. saturation
c. trichromatic
d. complementary colour

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 154            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. What differs in the visual perception of a human dichromat and a human trichromat?
a. colour vision
b. general acuity
c. night vision
d. peripheral vision

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 155            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. Hering’s opponent-process theory suggests that receptors are linked antagonistically in pairs. What are his opposed pairs?
a. red-yellow; blue-green; black-white
b. yellow-green; red-blue; black-white
c. red-green; yellow-blue; black-white
d. red-black; yellow-white; green-blue

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 155            BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Eli has been wearing green welding goggles for the past 30 minutes. Based on the opponent-process theory of colour vision, what colour will white objects appear to be for a brief time after Eli takes off the green goggles?
a. blue
b. yellow
c. orange
d. red

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 155            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. According to one theory of colour vision, colours are signalled in pairs by neurons that fire faster to one colour and slower to another colour. What is this theory called?
a. trichromatic
b. signal-detection
c. opponent process
d. feature-detection

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 155            BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Denise was momentarily blinded when paparazzi snapped her picture using a blue flash. Following the flash, she saw spots for several minutes. What colour were the spots, based on the opponent-process theory of colour vision?
a. yellow
b. blue
c. red
d. green

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 155            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. After having your picture taken with a yellow flash, you momentarily see blue spots floating before your eyes. Which process best explains this phenomenon?
a. additive colour mixing
b. trichromatic theory
c. opponent process theory
d. subtractive colour mixing

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 155            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. Which theory of colour vision is supported by the action of the lateral geniculate nucleus?
a. Young-Helmholtz
b. trichromatic
c. opponent process
d. Yerkes-Dodson

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 155            BLM:  Higher order

 

 

  1. Which of the following is the best description of the current view of how colour is coded in the visual system?
a. It starts as an opponent process and then switches to a trichromatic process.
b. It starts with rods and then switches to cones.
c. It begins with cones and then switches to rods.
d. It begins with a trichromatic process and then switches to an opponent process.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 155            BLM:  Remember

 

  1. What colour should you wear on a date if you want to enhance your perceived attractiveness, based on results of research examining colour effects on behaviour?
a. a colour that matches your eye colour
b. red
c. a colour that is opposite to your eye colour
d. white

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 157            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. Three people look at the same sketch and report seeing three different things. Which of the following does this demonstrate that perception is influenced by?
a. sensory readiness
b. perceptual set
c. cognitive interpretation
d. stimulus ambiguity

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 158            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. What do we mean when we say that perception is influenced by a perceptual set?
a. Feature analysis is a “hard-wired” process.
b. People often see what they expect to see.
c. Visual perception is based on a bottom-up processing strategy.
d. The focused-attention stage of processing is often overridden by preattentive processes.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 158            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. Mike and Sandy were walking down the street and Mike was telling Sandy a story about a party he went to. As they were walking, a car full of clowns drove past and waved at them. Sandy waved back. Later, Mike reported truthfully that he had never seen the clowns and did not notice that Sandy waved at them. Which of the following could explain this apparent lapse in perception?
a. inattentional blindness
b. bottom-up processing
c. hyperfocus
d. phi phenomenon

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 158            BLM:  Higher order

 

 

  1. Feature analysis assumes that we progress from individual elements to the whole in the formation of our perceptions. Which of the following processes describes feature analysis?
a. bottom-up
b. top-to-bottom
c. bottom-down
d. top-down

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 159            BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Psychologists who took the structuralist approach to the study of consciousness believed that the best way to understand an individual’s conscious experiences was to understand all the component parts that combined to produce the experience. With which model of perception is this most consistent?
a. opponent-process
b. eclectic
c. top-down
d. bottom-up

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 159            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. Vanessa describes a new melody that she heard at a concert by telling you each of the individual notes, in the order that they were played. In providing this type of description, which type of processing does Vanessa appear to use?
a. opponent-process
b. bottom-up
c. figure-ground
d. top-down

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 159            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. Sima was listening to a tape recording of a famous speech that was being played backward. She just heard gibberish until a classmate told her that the phrase “meet me in St. Louis” was clearly spoken. The tape was rewound and as Sima listened this time, she also clearly heard the same phrase. Which of the following models of perception is illustrated by Sima’s ability to detect the phrase the second time through the tape?
a. eclectic
b. bottom-up processing
c. top-down processing
d. opponent-process

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 160            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. Which type of processing is most important for the ability to rapidly process words that you are reading?
a. lateral
b. bottom-up
c. top-down
d. bottom-to-top

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 160            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. Which type of processing are you using when you read a note that is poorly written, but you understand the content without being stumped by errors?
a. cognitive interference
b. opponent processing
c. bottom-up processing
d. top-down processing

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 160            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. Rather than provide details about the party she just attended, Patrice tried to give her overall impression, operating on the assumption that the whole may be greater than the mere sum of its parts. Which field of psychology is based on this assumption?
a. psychodynamics
b. Gestalt psychology
c. holistic psychology
d. psychophysics

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 160            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. The successive blinking on and off of the lights on the neon sign gave the impression of beer filling a glass. What is the name of this illusion?
a. constancy principle
b. phi phenomenon
c. motion parallax effect
d. common-fate principle

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 160            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. The lights around the movie marquee flashed on and off in succession. However, Jerome did not perceive them as separate lights flashing, but instead saw a continuous band of light moving around the edge of the marquee. What is this type of perception known as?
a. phi phenomenon
b. preattentive processing
c. feature detection
d. bottom-up processing

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 160            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. Shelby created an animated scene using her computer. She drew a frog as he started to jump, and then drew the frog landing. The computer created 24 pictures between these two points, each of which adjusted the frog’s position very slightly. When the entire sequence of 26 pictures is displayed in rapid succession, the frog appears to hop smoothly. What is this type of perception known as?
a. phi phenomenon
b. preattentive processing
c. bottom-up processing
d. feature detection

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 160            BLM:  Higher order

 

 

  1. Why is it difficult to see a chameleon that has blended in with its background?
a. Perceptually, the chameleon and the background share a common fate.
b. The illusion of relative size leads us to think that the chameleon has disappeared.
c. We cannot easily distinguish between figure and ground in this case.
d. The perceptual principle of shape constancy prevents us from seeing the chameleon.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 160            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. Zachary is looking at a reversible figure which first appears to be a vase, and then appears to be two faces. His perception of the figure keeps switching between these two interpretations. What causes the switch in perception?
a. The Gestalt principle of simplicity doesn’t work for reversible figures.
b. The figure-ground distinction in reversible figures is often ambiguous.
c. The Gestalt principles of proximity and closure are both at work in reversible figures.
d. Reversible figures cause people to experience the phi phenomenon.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 160            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. What becomes inverted in paintings or drawings that lead to ambiguous interpretations?
a. open processing and closed processing
b. figure and ground
c. sensation and perception
d. top and bottom

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 160            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. What does the Gestalt principle of proximity state?
a. Perception occurs in discrete time frames.
b. Objects nearer to each other are seen as forming a unit.
c. People tend to gravitate toward a common interaction distance.
d. Centre-surround cells that are closer fire more often.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 161            BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Natalie sat on her porch looking out at the field of soybeans. Which Gestalt principle is consistent with the fact that Natalie perceived the soybean plants as being grouped into a series of separate rows?
a. proximity
b. simplicity
c. similarity
d. closure

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 161            BLM:  Higher order

 

 

  1. Sai was at a football game, and even though people wearing green jackets were spread fairly evenly throughout the stands, he still perceived all the people in green jackets as a single group of visiting fans. With which Gestalt principle is Sai’s perception most consistent?
a. closure
b. proximity
c. similarity
d. simplicity

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 161            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. Because of which Gestalt principle do we often perceive a series of dots on a printed form as a “solid” line?
a. constancy
b. closure
c. symmetry
d. similarity

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 161            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. When Justin looked up at the night sky, he perceived the three stars that make up the belt in the constellation Orion as a single complete figure, rather than as individual stars. Which Gestalt principle does Justin’s perception of the night sky illustrate?
a. figure-ground
b. similarity
c. closure
d. proximity

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 161            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. Christina was skiing down an intermediate run when the run broke into two separate trails. One trail turned off at a 90-degree angle; the second trail appeared to continue in the same general direction she had been headed. If Christina takes the second trail, with which Gestalt principle would her actions be consistent?
a. continuity
b. closure
c. proximity
d. common region

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 161            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. You are looking at a book. What type of stimulus is the book from a perceptual perspective?
a. distilled
b. approximate
c. distal
d. proximal

Sensation and Perception Essay Paper.

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 162            BLM:  Remember

 

 

  1. You interpret a trapezoid shape projected on your retina as a rectangular book. What have you just formulated?
a. phenomenological principle
b. psychophysical law
c. perceptual hypothesis
d. Gestalt principle

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 162            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. We are able to see three dimensions, even though we have a two-dimensional retina. What is this ability called?
a. rod-cone refractance
b. depth perception
c. sensory accommodation
d. visual acuity

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 163            BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Stacia had an operation on her eyes, but the doctors were unable to save the vision in her left eye. What will happen to Stacia’s perceptual abilities?
a. She will lose her ability to perceive colours accurately.
b. She will be more vulnerable to perceptual illusions that incorporate differences in relative line length.
c. She will no longer be able to utilize convergence as a perceptual cue.
d. She will be unable to perceive depth.

Sensation and Perception Essay Paper.

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 163-164     BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. As the large butterfly flew toward Richard, he could tell it was getting closer because he could feel his eyes turning inward toward his nose as he watched it. Which depth cue was Richard using in this instance?
a. relative size
b. binocular disparity
c. accommodation
d. convergence

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 164            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. What must you do in order to keep focusing on an object as it moves closer to your face?
a. look straight ahead
b. focus at a point some distance beyond the approaching object
c. rotate your eyes inward
d. rotate your eyes outward

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 164            BLM:  Remember

 

 

  1. As Briana drove down the highway, the pickets of the fences moved past her in a blur, but the mountains in the distance didn’t appear to move at all. What was Briana experiencing?
a. binocular cue for depth called retinal disparity
b. monocular cue for depth called motion parallax
c. binocular cue for depth called convergence
d. pictorial cue for depth called texture gradient

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 164            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. Tran was painting a picture of a jet on a runway; however, in his painting the sides of the runway are parallel to each other. His picture seems to lack depth. Which monocular depth cue has Tran failed to make use of?
a. linear perspective
b. convergence
c. motion parallax
d. height in plane

Sensation and Perception Essay Paper.

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 164            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. The sand at Zane’s feet appeared coarse, and he could see the individual grains of sand. However, the sand down the beach appeared to be much finer and less granular. From which depth cue might this apparent difference in the sand have partially resulted?
a. relative size
b. interposition
c. texture gradient
d. light and shadow

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 164            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. What is interposition?
a. a lens’ ability to change shape and focus light directly on the retina
b. the processing of auditory information at the cochlear level
c. an environmental depth cue in which closer objects overlap objects farther away
d. the relationship between bipolar and ganglion cells

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 164            BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Gabriella was looking for shelter from the sudden cloudburst, and at first she had difficulty judging whether the old barn or the farmhouse was closer. However, when she noticed that the barn partially obscured the corner of the house she headed for the barn. Which depth cue did Gabriella use?
a. linear perspective
b. texture gradient
c. relative size
d. interposition

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 164            BLM:  Higher order

 

 

  1. Images that occupy more space on your retina are seen as nearer, relative to images that occupy less space. What is this depth cue called?
a. phrenetic search
b. foveal disparity
c. relative size
d. accommodation

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 164            BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Ashley is trying to create a small model village on the mantle of her fireplace. She bought 3-inch high figures to put at the front of the mantle and smaller figures to put near the back. What depth cue is Ashley using?
a. light and shadow
b. texture gradient
c. convergence
d. relative size

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 164            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. Which of the following is implied by the phenomenon of perceptual constancy?
a. Movement of an object can disrupt our ability to perceive it.
b. Two objects may be perceived as being the same even though they produce different retinal images.
c. We have an easier time remembering items that have remained constant, compared to objects that have changed.
d. Our ability to perceive changes in an object is inhibited if we have been exposed to that object for an extended period of time.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 165            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. What is perceptual constancy?
a. We have a tendency for schemas to guide our perceptions.
b. Perception of objects remains stable despite the fact that sensory information changes.
c. It is the same thing as functional fixedness.
d. Overlapping visual fields in the retina allow our perception of the world to remain stable.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 165            BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Three-year-old Keeghan was flying in a plane for the first time. As the plane descended for its landing, Keeghan became very excited at all the toy houses and cars he saw, and he couldn’t wait for the plane to land so he could play with the toys. Which perceptual cue is Keeghan NOT using?
a. visual accommodation
b. size constancy
c. linear perspective
d. binocular depth cues

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 165            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. Which visual illusion accounts for the fact that the corner of a building thrust toward the viewer looks shorter than an inside corner thrust away from the viewer?
a. Ponzo illusion
b. illusion of relative size
c. Müller-Lyer illusion
d. horizontal-vertical illusion

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 165            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. In the Ames room, people are seen to get smaller or larger as they move about. What does this demonstrate about our perception?
a. The proximal stimulus is unrelated to the distal stimulus.
b. The actual, distal stimuli are the primary determinants of perception.
c. Perception depends on the assumptions we make about stimuli.
d. Bottom-up processing controls most perception.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 165            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. What is the moon illusion?
a. We perceive the moon to be perfectly round, when it is really elliptical.
b. We perceive the moon to be dimmer in some seasons than in others.
c. We perceive the moon to be larger on the horizon than overhead.
d. We think we see the moon when in fact it is not there.

Sensation and Perception Essay Paper.

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 167            BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Which of the following is true of optical illusions?
a. They are influenced by our experiences.
b. They are perceived only if your vision is compromised.
c. Once you understand the “trick,” then you won’t see the illusion anymore.
d. They are more pronounced in children.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 167            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. You see a delicious-looking doughnut sitting on the counter in front of you, and you guide your hand toward the doughnut and pop it into your mouth. What do we call the second visual process for guiding your hand?
a. Hubel vision
b. conscious vision
c. subcortical vision
d. vision for action

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 169            BLM:  Higher order

 

 

  1. In the case study of “DF,” a woman experienced brain damage as a result of carbon-monoxide poisoning and lost the ability to recognize the forms of objects. What type of deficit did “DF” have?
a. amnesia
b. failure of vision for action
c. dorsal stream damage
d. agnosia

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 169            BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Which of the following activities would be difficult for you to do if you sustained damage to your dorsal stream?
a. say the name of an item that you see
b. choose colours that match
c. recognize your best friend
d. reach out to pick up a cup

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 170            BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Which perception is associated with the amplitude of a sound wave?
a. loudness
b. richness
c. timbre
d. tonal quality

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 171            BLM:  Remember

 

  1. What aspect of the sound wave influences the perception of timbre?
a. panache
b. amplitude
c. pitch
d. purity

Sensation and Perception Essay Paper.

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 170            BLM:  Remember

 

  1. When a clarinet plays a high C followed by a low C, these two notes are perceived differently because they differ in what aspect?
a. complexity
b. amplitude
c. frequency
d. purity

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 170            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. What units of measurement refer to the loudness of sounds?
a. timbre
b. frequency
c. decibels
d. hertz

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 170            BLM:  Remember

 

  1. What units of measurement refer to the pitch of sounds?
a. hertz
b. nanometers
c. decibels
d. wavelengths

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 170            BLM:  Remember

 

  1. What is the range of human hearing?
a. 5 to 50 Hz
b. 10 to 100 Hz
c. 20 to 20,000 Hz
d. 10,000 to 100,000 Hz

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 170            BLM:  Remember

 

  1. What is the structure of the ear that conducts sound waves to the middle ear?
a. auditory lineal
b. auditory canal
c. auditory tract
d. auditory conduction tube

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 172            BLM:  Remember

 

  1. What is the structure of the ear that transduces sound vibrations into nerve impulses?
a. oval window
b. temporal lobe
c. cochlea
d. stirrup

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 172            BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Jefferson has had years of exposure to high amplitude sound through his work as a helicopter mechanic. Lately he has noticed that he is losing his ability to detect high frequency sounds. What has Jefferson most likely damaged?
a. his eardrum
b. the tiny bones of his middle ear
c. his cochlea
d. his auditory canal

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 172            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. Which structure of the ear serves a similar function as the retina serves in the eye?
a. pinna
b. eardrum
c. cochlea
d. ossicles

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 172            BLM:  Higher order

 

 

  1. What are the actual, direct receptors for hearing?
a. hair cells
b. basilar cells
c. ossicles
d. cochleas

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 172            BLM:  Remember

 

  1. What process allows us to hear pitch, according to place theory?
a. There is differential movement of specific ossicles.
b. The entire cochlea vibrates at a speed equivalent to the wavelengths that stimulate the ear.
c. Vibrations occur at specific locations on the basilar membrane.
d. Specific hair cells are simultaneously stimulated all along the length of the semicircular canals.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 173            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. Imagine that the basilar membrane in the human ear were longer. What might you expect humans to be able to do, based on place theory?
a. localize sounds more accurately
b. hear more sounds of lower frequency, but lose some higher frequency sounds
c. hear a wider range of sounds
d. detect sound waves that had a lower amplitude

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 173            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. Which theory of hearing views the basilar membrane as being like a drumhead?
a. place
b. timpani
c. opponent-process
d. frequency

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 173            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. The maximum firing rate for individual neurons is 1000 neural impulses per second. What does this biological limitation mean for theories of perception?
a. Trichromatic theory cannot fully explain colour perception.
b. Opponent-process theory cannot fully explain colour perception.
c. Place theory cannot fully explain pitch perception.
d. Frequency theory cannot fully explain pitch perception.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 174            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. What is the major flaw in the frequency theory of pitch perception?
a. It places the transduction process in the semicircular canals and not the cochlea.
b. Structurally, it is impossible for the basilar membrane to vibrate.
c. The action of the ossicles interacting with the auditory nerve was misidentified.
d. Neurons cannot fire fast enough to account for hearing tones higher than 1000 cycles/second.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 174            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. Which theory, or theories, best explain(s) pitch perception for very low-pitch, very high-pitch, and middle-pitch sounds, respectively?
a. place theory; both theories; frequency theory
b. place theory; frequency theory; place theory
c. frequency theory; place theory; both theories
d. frequency theory; both theories; place theory

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 174            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. Clifford was in an accident and he has lost all the hearing in one ear. Which ability will the deafness in this ear mostly affect?
a. localizing sounds accurately
b. detecting high amplitude sounds
c. detecting high frequency sounds
d. separating speech sounds from background noise

 

Sensation and Perception Essay Paper.

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 174            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. Juan and Karletta were walking one night when they heard a car backfire. Juan was convinced the sound came from directly in front of them, and Karletta was convinced the sound came from directly behind them. Which of the following would explain their difficulty localizing the sound?
a. Sound localization is more difficult in the dark.
b. Only speech sounds can be accurately localized.
c. The sound waves arrived at both left and right ears at the same instant.
d. We are able to judge distance better than direction for sounds.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 174            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. Diego was able to tell that the voice he heard calling his name was coming from the building on his left. What is this ability called?
a. auditory localization
b. perceptual constancy
c. depth perception
d. perceptual set

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 174            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. Where is the source of a sound when there is a large difference in loudness between the two ears?
a. well off to one side
b. a long distance away
c. directly behind the listener’s head
d. directly in front of the listener

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 174            BLM:  Remember

 

 

  1. Which of the following sound locations would result in the poorest localization accuracy?
a. 90 degrees to the right
b. 90 degrees to the left
c. 45 degrees to the front left
d. directly behind the person

ORDER PLAGIARISM-FREE PAPER NOW

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 174            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. If you are sitting in a room facing exactly north, where will you perceive a sound to come from if it emanates exactly from the south?
a. all directions at the same time
b. either the north or the south
c. directly over your head
d. either the east or the west

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 174            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. Which type of visual perception operates in a similar fashion as auditory localization?
a. retinal disparity
b. optical illusion
c. depth perception
d. size constancy

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 174            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. Which two major cues do we use to localize sound sources in space?
a. pitch and loudness differences at the ears
b. intensity and timing differences at the ears
c. distance and loudness
d. loudness and timbre differences at the ears

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 174            BLM:  Remember

 

  1. What is the smallest timing difference that people can detect between each ear?
a. 1/10 of a second
b. 1/1000 of a second
c. 1/100 000 of a second
d. 1/1 000 000 of a second

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 174            BLM:  Remember

 

  1. What is speech prosody?
a. ability to use speech for intentional communication
b. unspoken aspects of speech, including body posture
c. use of speech in noncommunicative ways
d. musical aspects of speech, like intonation and rhythm

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 176            BLM:  Remember

 

 

  1. After reading the Featured Study, in which of the following might you enroll your child if you wanted to enhance your child’s ability to interpret speech prosody?
a. team sport rather than an individual sport
b. linguistics course
c. singing lessons
d. drama or keyboard lessons

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 176            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. Which sense is primarily responsible for the perception of taste?
a. gustatory
b. olfactory
c. vagus
d. vestibular

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 177            BLM:  Remember

 

  1. What are the four basic tastes generally considered to be?
a. sweet, sour, spicy, and smooth
b. salty, sweet, sour, and bitter
c. bitter, salty, bland, and sour
d. sour, bitter, bland, and hot

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 177            BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Where on the tongue would you find the oldest taste buds?
a. near the tip
b. near the middle
c. near the cheeks
d. near the throat

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 177            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. What structure in the gustatory system operates in a similar fashion to rods and cones in the visual system?
a. the tongue
b. a taste bud
c. a hair cell
d. the salivary gland

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 177            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. What evidence do we have that some taste preferences are innate?
a. There is genetic evidence of predispositions to prefer certain foods.
b. There are many foods or substances that are rejected by all cultures.
c. Newborn infants demonstrate a preference for sweet and an aversion to sour tastes.
d. The brain’s response to flavours does not change across the lifespan, even if diet changes.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 178            BLM:  Remember

 

 

  1. Compared to nontasters, what is different about people characterized as supertasters?
a. They have taste buds that respond to multiple types of flavours.
b. They have three or four additional types of taste buds.
c. They have about four times as many taste buds per square centimetre.
d. They have about ten times as many taste buds per square centimetre.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 178            BLM:  Remember

 

  1. What is one key gender difference that has been found with respect to tasting?
a. Men are more likely than women to be supertasters.
b. Women tend to react more to sweet tastes while men react more to bitter tastes.
c. Women are more likely than men to be supertasters.
d. Men tend to react more to sweet tastes while women react more to bitter tastes.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 179            BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Eloise is an individual who is classified as a supertaster. What is she likely to be especially sensitive to?
a. salty and sour tastes
b. sweet and salty tastes
c. sweet and bitter tastes
d. sour and bitter tastes

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 179            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. Why does food generally taste bland when you have a severe head cold?
a. Your cold will cause the sweet receptors in your mouth to become inactivated.
b. Your high temperature will cause your brain to block signals from the taste buds in the mouth.
c. Your naturally produced antibodies interfere with chemical molecules stimulated by your taste buds.
d. Flavour is influenced by smell as well as taste, and with a reduced sense of smell your sense of taste will be diminished.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 179            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. Mike broke his nose in a recent boxing match. The doctors packed his nose and told him he will need to breathe through his mouth for the next 10 to 14 days. What is Mike likely to experience while his nose is packed?
a. Food will have little taste because much of a food’s flavour depends on our sense of smell.
b. He will have problems with his equilibrium and balance.
c. Food will taste better because his sense of taste will be temporarily enhanced to compensate for his missing sense of smell.
d. He will have blurry vision because the packing will put pressure on his optic nerve.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 179            BLM:  Higher order

 

 

  1. What is the sense associated with the perception of smell?
a. olfaction
b. gustation
c. audition
d. kinaesthesia

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 179            BLM:  Remember

 

  1. What is the only sensory system that does not project upward to the cerebral cortex through the thalamus?
a. hearing
b. gustation
c. vision
d. olfaction

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 179            BLM:  Remember

 

  1. What are the sensory receptors for smell?
a. smell buds
b. gustatory bulbs
c. olfactory cilia
d. sciatic receptors

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 179            BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Our sense of smell shows evidence of sensory adaptation. What happens to the perceived strength of an odour?
a. It fades to less than half its original strength within about four minutes.
b. It slowly increases over time, reaching a maximum in about 15 minutes.
c. It fades to less than half its original strength within a few seconds.
d. It increases to more than twice its original strength within about four minutes.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 180            BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Which of the following is a gender difference for odour recognition?
a. Females can detect odours at weaker levels, but males are better at naming the odour.
b. Males tend to be somewhat more accurate than females on these types of tasks.
c. Males can detect odours at weaker levels, but females are better at naming the odour.
d. Females tend to be somewhat more accurate than males on these types of tasks.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 180            BLM:  Remember

 

  1. If someone’s behaviour is altered by the scent chemicals released by another member of his species, what is the term used for that scent chemical?
a. scent hormone
b. pheromone
c. odourant
d. chemolfaction

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 180            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. What happens to the perception of pressure if a stimulus is applied continuously to a specific spot on the skin?
a. It fades in some receptive fields, but increases in others.
b. It increases over time.
c. It gradually fades.
d. It fades only if the pressure is pulsatile.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 181            BLM:  Remember

 

  1. What route is taken by nerve fibres that carry information about pressure from the surface of the skin on the left side of the body?
a. past the spinal column and into the left temporal cortex
b. along the spinal meninges and terminating in the left parietal somatosensory cortex
c. through the spinal column and into the right frontal motor cortex
d. through the spinal column and into the right parietal somatosensory cortex

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 181            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. Which pain pathway transmits information about an injury that has just occurred?
a. fast
b. geniculate
c. slow
d. medial

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 181            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. Which pathway for pain results in the experience of pain being less localized and longer lasting?
a. endorphin
b. generic
c. slow
d. thalamic

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ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 181            BLM:  Remember

 

  1. What structures do neural transmission in the slow pain pathway depend on?
a. pulsating neural impulses called pain spindles
b. opponent-process receptors in the area surrounding the injury
c. thicker, myelinated neurons called A-delta fibres
d. thin, unmyelinated neurons called C fibres

Sensation and Perception Essay Paper.

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 181            BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Catelin has had a slow throbbing pain in her ankle since she twisted it in-line skating last week. Where are these pain signals travelling?
a. thin, unmyelinated C fibres
b. periacqueductal gray neurons in the midbrain
c. ungated endorphin pathways in the hypothalamus
d. thick, myelinated A-delta fibres

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 181            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. Derek dropped a hammer on his foot and shrieked a split second later at the intense pain from a newly broken toe. How did the almost instantaneous pain signals travel?
a. thick, myelinated A-delta fibres
b. periacqueductal gray neurons in the midbrain
c. thin, unmyelinated C fibres
d. gated endorphin pathways in the hypothalamus

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 181            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. Which of the following accurately describes the role of culture for pain perception?
a. Race has a larger impact on pain perception than does culture.
b. Culture has no impact on pain perception or attitudes toward pain.
c. Culture affects willingness to tolerate pain, but not the process of pain perception.
d. Cultural rules dictate the amount of pain experienced, but only above a certain innate threshold.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 182            BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Which theory can account for the fact that people suffering from pain sometimes report pain relief from a sugar pill placebo?
a. cognitive control
b. sensory adaptation
c. perceptual constancy
d. gate-control

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 182            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. Which of the following helps to explain an athlete’s ability to play with a broken foot and not feel the pain until much later?
a. overactive thyroid response
b. hypnotic induction control theory of pain
c. sympathetic nervous system control mechanisms
d. gate-control theory of pain

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 182            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. What is the point of origin for the pathway that researchers believe mediates the perception of pain?
a. medial forebrain bundle
b. medulla
c. periacqueductal gray
d. septal nucleus

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 183            BLM:  Remember

 

 

  1. What would happen if you cut fibres in the neural pathway leading away from the periacqueductal gray in the midbrain?
a. increased perception of pain
b. enhanced effects of morphine and other opiate drugs
c. release of endorphins
d. reduced perception of pain

 

Sensation and Perception Essay Paper.

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 183            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. What is the role of glial cells for pain perception?
a. If spinal glial cells are activated, they can reduce the experience of pain.
b. If glial cells are damaged or inactive, perception of pain increases.
c. Glial cells in the spinal cord appear to block transmission of endorphins to the periaqueductal grey.
d. Spinal glial cells are activated by the immune system, and may amplify chronic pain.

Sensation and Perception Essay Paper.

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 183            BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Which sense is important for perception of the positions of the various parts of the body?
a. homeostatic
b. vestibular
c. kinesthetic
d. kinetic

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 184            BLM:  Remember

 

  1. What does your kinesthetic system allow you to perceive?
a. your sense of forward acceleration
b. your body movement, when something else is moving you
c. the relative position of your body parts
d. the location of your body in space

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 184            BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Where would you find receptors for the kinesthetic sense?
a. semicircular canals
b. basilar membrane
c. cochlea
d. joints and muscles

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 184            BLM:  Remember

 

  1. A police officer asked Stanley to close his eyes and touch the tip of his nose, using first his right index finger and then his left index finger. What does Stanley rely on to complete this test of coordination?
a. sensory accommodation
b. reticular sense
c. vestibular sense
d. kinesthetic sense

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 184            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. Where are the receptors for the vestibular sense?
a. muscles
b. inner ear
c. joints
d. skin

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 184            BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Which of the following parts of the ear has a role in maintaining balance?
a. semicircular canals
b. basilar membrane
c. ossicles
d. cochlea

 

Sensation and Perception Essay Paper.

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 184            BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Loreen has a bad case of vertigo. She feels like the room is spinning, and she has trouble keeping her balance. Which of the following is most likely to be the location of excess neural activity in Loreen’s case?
a. olfactory bulb
b. parvocellular system
c. periacqueductal gray
d. semicircular canals

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 184            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. You have a severe ear infection. Which of the following is a potential side effect?
a. enhanced sense of smell
b. loss of balance
c. blurred vision
d. loss of ability to taste food

Sensation and Perception Essay Paper.

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 184            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. Our construction of perceptual hypotheses illustrates which of your text’s unifying themes?
a. Psychology is empirical.
b. Behaviour is determined by multiple causes.
c. Psychology evolves in a sociohistorical context.
d. Our experience of the world is highly subjective.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 184            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. Which of your text’s unifying themes is illustrated by the fact that many Americans might be reluctant to try the Japanese delicacy of raw fish?
a. Our experience of the world is highly subjective.
b. Psychology is empirical.
c. Behaviour is shaped by our cultural heritage.
d. Psychology evolves in a sociohistorical context.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 184            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. Research examining the existence of the McCollough effect in individuals who suffer from deficits in form perception indicates that such individuals can perceive the McCollough effect even though they cannot perceive the actual form of the stimuli used in the McCollough Effect experiments. Which of your text’s unifying themes is illustrated by the discrepancy between what people can see and what people can do with visual information?
a. Our experience of the world is highly subjective.
b. Behaviour is shaped by our cultural heritage.
c. Psychology evolves in a sociohistorical context.
d. Psychology is empirical.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 184            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. What depth cues must a painter employ in order to create the illusion of three-dimensional reality?
a. pictorial
b. myopic
c. binocular
d. bivariate

Sensation and Perception Essay Paper.

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 188            BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Which type of artists were more concerned with interpreting a viewers fleeting perception of reality than with recreating the photographic “reality” of a scene?
a. French impressionists
b. realists
c. medievalists
d. cubists

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 188            BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Which mechanism does the Impressionist technique of pointillism rely on??
a. subtractive colour mixing
b. feature analysis
c. binocular disparity as a cue for depth
d. additive colour mixing

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 188            BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Which school of painting reduces reality to combinations of geometric forms laid out in a flat space?
a. cubism
b. surrealism
c. impressionism
d. pointillism

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 189            BLM:  Remember

 

 

  1. Which organizational principles are evident in the paintings of Cubists?
a. Gestalt
b. zeitgeist
c. functional
d. psychoanalytic

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 190            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. Which theorist’s influence is reflected in the surrealists’ exploration of the world of dreams and fantasy?
a. theorist Abraham Maslow
b. theorist B. F. Skinner
c. theorist Sigmund Freud
d. theorist Gustav Fechner

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 190            BLM:  Remember

 

  1. What are M. C. Escher’s paintings, which often include impossible staircases and other structures, viewed as examples of?
a. perceptual ambiguity
b. pointillism
c. cubism
d. Gestalt continuity

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 191            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. Victor Vasarely’s approach is known as Kinetic Art. How does he use optical illusions in his work?
a. He makes it seem as if there are three-dimensional images popping out of a background of arbitrary features.
b. He hides images of nudes within advertising images.
c. He makes it appear as if geometric shapes are moving or changing shape.
d. He creates a complex image from tiny points of paint or charcoal.

Sensation and Perception Essay Paper.

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 192            BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Belgian artist René Magritte used images of paintings on easels (within his paintings) that appeared to continue beyond the borders of the canvas. What point was he trying to make?
a. By making his images look ridiculous, he challenged the viewer to react against surrealist trends in art.
b. He used visual illusions to make political statements about the futility of democracy.
c. There is no line between the “real world” and the illusory world, or that everything is an illusion.
d. He created impossible figures, like Escher did, in order to demonstrate that it was impossible to separate art from the artist.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 193            BLM:  Remember

 

 

  1. What does the door-in-the-face technique involve?
a. Making a long series of very small requests, until the target stops agreeing.
b. Concealing some of the costs associated with a request until after the request has been accepted.
c. Making a very large request that is likely to be turned down to increase the chances that people will agree to a smaller request later.
d. Adding incentives to a request that has been turned down until people finally agree to go along with the initial request.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 194            BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Last year Fiona had a yard sale. She marked the prices of items very reasonably, and she refused to reduce them when people tried to negotiate. This year she had another yard sale, but this time she marked the prices of items quite high, and then reduced them by 50 percent or more when people asked to negotiate. Fiona was surprised to find that she made much more money this year. Which of the following may have led people to purchase a lot from Fiona’s sale this year?
a. contrast effects
b. absolute thresholds
c. sensory adaptation
d. subliminal comparitors

 

Sensation and Perception Essay Paper.

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 194            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. Roberta and Phil have been arrested for vandalism at their school. Given what we know about contrast effects, what should their defense attorney emphasize in order to get a lighter sentence for Roberta and Phil?
a. The other students involved in the incident did much more damage than her clients did.
b. Her clients are both active in a number of extracurricular activities at their school.
c. This is the first offence.
d. Both clients are good students who always score at the top of their class.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 194            BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. Complete the following analogy: The visual cortex is to the auditory cortex as the occipital lobe is to the _____.
a. frontal lobe
b. sensory lobe
c. parietal lobe
d. temporal lobe

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    BLM:  Higher order

 

 

  1. You’ve been sitting on the couch for a while now, there is music playing in the background, your cat has fallen asleep with his head on your arm. You are daydreaming about your upcoming vacation, and you don’t notice or attend to the sound of the music or the pressure of your cat’s very heavy head. What processes are these two reductions in feeling the result of?
a. endorphin-induced suppression of perception
b. sensory adaptation
c. sensory sensitization
d. perceptual dulling

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. Complete the following analogy: The retina is to the basilar membrane as depth perception is to _____.Sensation and Perception Essay Paper.
a. auditory feature detection
b. auditory adaptation
c. auditory localization
d. auditory afterimages

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. Complete the following analogy: Hue is to pitch as brightness is to _____.
a. purity
b. loudness
c. retinal disparity
d. timbre

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    BLM:  Higher order

 

ESSAY

 

  1. Use appropriate examples from everyday situations to illustrate the basic concepts from signal-detection theory.

Sensation and Perception Essay Paper.

ANS:

Good answers to this question should include practical examples of a hit, a miss, a correct rejection, and a false alarm. The discussion should also include the idea that changing the criterion for detection can alter accuracy. Well-developed answers will also include the idea that concurrent environmental events (such as irrelevant stimuli) can affect sensory thresholds and the accuracy of signal detection.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 140-141     BLM:  Higher order

 

 

  1. From a distal light source to the brain, sequentially trace a visual stimulus through the eye and nervous system.

 

ANS:

Light passes through the cornea, enters the pupil, is focused by the lens, and is projected onto the retina. The retina converts the light rays into nerve impulses, which then travel via the optic nerve to the optic chiasm. At the optic chiasm, the axons from the inside half of each eye cross over and project along two divergent pathways to the opposite cerebral hemisphere.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 145-150     BLM:  Remember

 

  1. Provide an overview of the trichromatic and opponent process theories of colour vision, and resolve the “debate” between the two.

 

ANS:

The trichromatic theory proposes that the eye has three types of receptors, each responsive to one of the three primary colours of light: red, blue, and green. The eye then additively mixes different proportions of these three colours to produce the colours we see. The opponent-process theory proposes that colour is signalled in pairs by receptors that fire faster to one colour and slower to a second, complementary colour. The three pairs of opponent colours are red-green, blue-yellow, and black-white.

 

Both theories are needed to adequately explain colour vision. In the earliest stage of information processing, there are three types of cones, each responsive to a different band of wavelengths, consistent with trichromatic theory. In later stages, cells in the retina, the lateral geniculate nucleus, and the visual cortex respond in opposite ways to complementary colours. Thus, colour coding begins with a trichromatic process and then switches to an opponent process.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 154-156     BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. Provide an overview of the place and frequency theories of pitch perception, and resolve the “debate” between the two.

 

ANS:

Place theory proposes that specific sound frequencies vibrate specific portions of the basilar membrane, producing different pitches. Frequency theory, on the other hand, proposes that pitch perception corresponds to the frequency at which the entire basilar membrane vibrates.

 

Currently, it is believed that both theories are needed to fully account for pitch perception. It appears that, for low-frequency sounds (under 1000 Hz), pitch perception depends on frequency coding only; for moderate-frequency sounds (1000 Hz to 5000 Hz), pitch perception depends on a combination of place and frequency coding; for high-frequency sounds (over 5000 Hz), pitch perception depends on place coding only.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 173-174     BLM:  Higher order

 

 

  1. Compare vision and hearing with regard to the proximal stimulus and information processing for each sense.Sensation and Perception Essay Paper.

 

ANS:

The proximal stimulus for vision is light waves oscillating over distance. Light waves have three properties: (1) amplitude, affecting the perception of brightness; (2) wavelength, affecting the perception of colour; and (3) purity, affecting the perception of saturation. Similarly, the proximal stimulus for hearing is sound waves oscillating over time. Sound waves have the same three properties as light waves: (1) amplitude, affecting the perception of loudness; (2) wavelength, affecting the perception of pitch; and (3) purity, affecting the perception of timbre.

 

Both the eye and the ear convert physical energy (light and sound waves, respectively) into the neural energy that travels to the brain, producing sensory experience. In the eye, this conversion is done by the rods and cones at the retina; in the ear, this conversion is done by the hair cells, located on the basilar membrane in the inner ear. Visual information is routed to the visual cortex in the occipital lobes; auditory information is routed to the auditory cortex in the temporal lobes.

 

PTS:   1                    BLM:  Higher order

 

  1. Using appropriate examples, show how perceptual experiences can be subjective.

 

ANS:

Good answers to this question should include ideas such as (1) expectations can affect the perception of visual or auditory stimuli; (2) pain perception can be altered by shifts in attentional focus; and (3) extreme comparitors and contrast effects can affect perception. Well-developed answers will bring in concepts from across the chapter, including the Personal Application and the Critical Thinking Application.

 

PTS:   1                    BLM:  Higher order

Sensation and Perception Essay Paper.