Social Psychology and Human Nature Comprehensive Edition Paper.

Social Psychology and Human Nature Comprehensive Edition Paper.

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. In the opening of this chapter, two men’s reactions to spam e-mail were described. The fact that neither of the men were able to shrug off their annoyance to the spam illustrates the fact that ____.
a. emotion is largely consciously controlled
b. emotion is largely outside conscious awareness
c. emotion is a positive coping skill
d. emotion is a negative coping skill

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Introduction   TYPE: Conceptual

 

  1. Emotions are both positive and negative. Once people experience both types of emotion, they generally try to orchestrate their lives to maximize the experience of positive emotion and minimize the experience of negative emotion. This pattern illustrates that emotions provide ____.
a. a feedback system
b. enrichment to life
c. the intent for criminal behavior
d. a motive for creative behavior

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Introduction   TYPE: Conceptual

 

  1. According to the text, emotions are ____, whereas moods are ____.
a. linked to particular events; not linked to particular events
b. not linked to particular events; linked to particular events
c. automatic responses; conscious evaluations
d. conscious evaluations; automatic responses

 

Social Psychology and Human Nature Comprehensive Edition Paper.

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   What Is Emotion?     TYPE: Conceptual

 

  1. In social psychology, a feeling state that is not linked to any particular event is known as a(n) ____.
a. mood
b. emotion
c. affect
d. response

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   What Is Emotion?     TYPE: Factual

 

  1. According to the textbook, an affect is ____.
a. a feeling state that is not linked to a particular event
b. a largely automatic response that something is good or bad
c. a conscious evaluative reaction to some event
d. a judgment containing cognitive, emotional, and behavioral components

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   What Is Emotion?     TYPE: Factual

 

Social Psychology and Human Nature Comprehensive Edition Paper.

  1. Tammy is very upset because she received a poor grade on a big English assignment. It would be most accurate to say that Tammy is experiencing a(n) ____.
a. emotion
b. affect
c. mood
d. attitude

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   What Is Emotion?     TYPE: Applied

 

  1. Madge woke up this morning feeling grouchy and annoyed. When asked why she is feeling this way, she can’t seem to come up with any particular reason. It would be most accurate to say that she is experiencing a(n) ____.
a. affect
b. emotion
c. mood
d. attitude

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   What Is Emotion?     TYPE: Applied

 

  1. Alice was attacked by a pig when she was a child, and developed a strong phobia of pigs. Whenever she sees a pig—whether on a farm, in a zoo, or even in a movie—she has a strong and immediate automatic reaction. This reaction is best classified as a(n) ____.
a. emotion
b. affect
c. mood
d. attitude

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   What Is Emotion?     TYPE: Applied

 

  1. Most researchers describe affect as ____.
a. occurring along a single dimension, ranging from negative to positive
b. occurring along a single dimension, ranging from weak to strong
c. occurring along two separate dimensions – negative and positive
d. occurring along two separate dimensions – weak and strong

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   What Is Emotion?     TYPE: Conceptual

 

  1. When social psychologists talk about quick and automatic reactions that are simply positive or negative (as opposed to being full-blown, complex feelings), they are talking about ____.
a. moods
b. emotions
c. affects
d. drives

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ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   What Is Emotion?     TYPE: Factual

 

  1. People typically tend to form affects ____.
a. within a few microseconds
b. within a few seconds or minutes
c. after a few days or weeks of being exposed to someone or something
d. across a span of several years

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   What Is Emotion?     TYPE: Factual

  1. According to the text, an affect is different than an emotion in that an affect is ____ while an emotion is ____. Social Psychology and Human Nature Comprehensive Edition Paper.
a. a feeling state that is not linked to a particular event; a conscious evaluative reaction to some event
b. an automatic response that something is good or bad; a feeling state that is not linked to a particular event
c. an automatic response that something is good or bad; a conscious evaluative reaction to some event
d. a conscious evaluative reaction to some event; an automatic response that something is good or bad

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   What Is Emotion?     TYPE: Conceptual

 

  1. Affective reactions differ from emotions in a number of ways. For example, affective reactions tend to ____.
a. occur more automatically
b. involve a stronger behavioral component
c. be more likely to relate to particular events
d. be more complex

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   What Is Emotion?     TYPE: Conceptual

 

  1. Consider the following quote: “… we feel sorry because we cry, angry because we strike, afraid because we tremble…”. With which of the following theories is this MOST consistent?
a. The Cannon-Bard theory
b. The James-Lange theory
c. The Schachter-Singer theory
d. The excitation transfer theory

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Emotional Arousal    TYPE: Conceptual

 

  1. A physiological reaction that entails a quickened heartbeat and more labored breathing would most likely be linked to ____.
a. control
b. arousal
c. drive
d. motivation

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Emotional Arousal    TYPE: Factual

 

  1. Within social psychological research on emotion, the term “arousal” is used to refer to ____.
a. the physiological reaction linked to most emotions
b. any positive emotion
c. any physiological response that prepares the person for sexual activity
d. attraction

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Emotional Arousal    TYPE: Factual

 

 

  1. The so-called “facial feedback hypothesis” refers to the idea that
a. facial expressions seem to have evolved in order for humans to better communicate feelings to one another.
b. we get information about what other people are feeling via their facial expressions.
c. others’ emotional facial expressions can actually evoke or heighten our own emotional experiences.
d. feedback from our own facial muscles can actually evoke or heighten our own emotional experiences.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Emotional Arousal    TYPE: Conceptual

 

  1. Salespeople who force themselves to smile at customers all day may actually end up feeling relatively happy. This effect can be best explained by ____.
a. the facial feedback hypothesis
b. excitation transfer theory
c. the Yerkes-Dodson law
d. catharsis theory

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Emotional Arousal    TYPE: Applied

 

  1. Which of the following theories of emotion inspired the facial feedback hypothesis?
a. The Cannon-Bard theory
b. The James-Lange theory
c. The Schachter-Singer theory
d. The excitation transfer theory

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Emotional Arousal    TYPE: Factual

 

  1. The James-Lange theory of emotion and the facial feedback hypothesis are similar in that they both suggest that, in emotional situations, ____.
a. our physiological responses and reactions precede and help drive our conscious emotional experiences
b. our conscious emotional experiences precede and help drive our physiological responses and reactions
c. we label our emotions—decide what emotion it is we are feeling—by looking to the outside world
d. we label our emotions—decide what emotion it is we are feeling—by consciously assessing the situation

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Emotional Arousal    TYPE: Conceptual

 

  1. Having Botox injections to one’s face will ____ one’s ability to understand other’s emotions.
a. have no impact on
b. improve
c. decrease
d. initially improve, but later decrease

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Emotional Arousal    TYPE: Factual

NOTE: New

 

 

  1. Which of the following areas of the brain is central to the Cannon-Bard theory of emotion?
a. The cerebellum
b. The medulla
c. The thalamus
d. The frontal lobes

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Emotional Arousal    TYPE: Factual

 

  1. According to the ____ theory of emotion, when people are presented with stimuli that trigger emotions, the thalamus in the brain sends two messages at the same time: one message that produces a conscious emotional experience and one message that produces a physiological response.
a. James-Lange
b. Cannon-Bard
c. Schachter and Singer
d. excitation transfer

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Emotional Arousal    TYPE: Conceptual

 

  1. The area of the brain known as the thalamus is central to the ____ theory of emotion.
a. James-Lange
b. Cannon-Bard
c. Schachter and Singer
d. excitation transfer

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Emotional Arousal    TYPE: Factual

 

  1. Which of the following theories of emotion suggests that people may sometimes mislabel, or relabel, their arousal as one emotion versus another?
a. The James-Lange theory
b. The Cannon-Bard theory
c. The Schachter-Singer theory
d. The Yerkes-Dodson law

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Emotional Arousal    TYPE: Factual

 

  1. Which of the following theories of emotion suggests that excitation transfer may sometimes happen?
a. The James-Lange theory
b. The Cannon-Bard theory
c. The Schachter-Singer theory
d. The Yerkes-Dodson law

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Emotional Arousal    TYPE: Conceptual

 

 

  1. Art has just been on a long run at the beach with his dog. When he arrives home he is still breathing hard and his heart is still racing; he is physiologically highly aroused. When a neighbor bumps into him in the hallway, Art completely freaks out and verbally attacks the neighbor. He demands: “Did you just push me? Do you have a problem, man?” It looks like Art may have misattributed his arousal (from his run to his neighbor). That is, Art’s behavior illustrates ____.
a. the Yerkes-Dodson law
b. sham
c. catharsis
d. excitation transfer

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Emotional Arousal    TYPE: Applied

 

  1. Some have suggested that, if you want a date to develop strong emotions toward you, it is a good idea to take him or her to a place that will be physiologically arousing—such as a horror movie or roller coaster. This idea is consistent with research on ____.
a. the Yerkes-Dodson law
b. sham
c. catharsis
d. excitation transfer

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Emotional Arousal    TYPE: Applied

 

  1. A famous study conducted by social psychologists Aron and Dutton, found that a female experimenter was most likely to be called by participants after they had walked across a scary, narrow bridge as opposed to after they had walked across a normal, stable bridge. This finding can be most easily explained by ____.
a. the Yerkes-Dodson law
b. sham
c. catharsis
d. excitation transfer

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Emotional Arousal    TYPE: Applied

 

  1. In a well-known study conducted by Schachter and Singer, wherein participants were injected either with a stimulant or a placebo and were then exposed to a highly emotional stimulus, it was found that participants showed the strongest emotional reactions when ____.
a. they were injected with a stimulant (and knew it)
b. they were injected with a stimulant (but didn’t know it)
c. they were injected with a placebo (and knew it)
d. they were injected with a placebo (but didn’t know it)

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Emotional Arousal    TYPE: Applied

 

  1. Research on sexual arousal indicates that the link between (a) self-reported sexual arousal and (b) physiological measures of arousal in the genitals is ____.
a. stronger among men than among women
b. stronger among women than among men
c. stronger among people who are generally highly emotional than among people who are generally unemotional—regardless of gender
d. stronger among people who are (at that moment) highly emotional than among people who are (at that moment) unemotional—regardless of gender

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Emotional Arousal    TYPE: Factual

  1. Research indicates that when heterosexual men watch films of homosexual men having sex with each other, the heterosexual men who are most homophobic ____.
a. report that they are more opposed to the films than other people, and show less genital arousal than other people
b. report that they are more opposed to the films than other people, but actually show more genital arousal than other people
c. report that they are actually as tolerant of the films as other people, but show less genital arousal than other people
d. report that they are actually as tolerant of the films as other people, and also show more genital arousal than other people

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Emotional Arousal    TYPE: Factual

 

  1. When women with high levels of sex guilt watch erotic films, they tend to ____.
a. report that they are more opposed to the films than other people, and show less genital arousal than other people
b. report that they are more opposed to the films than other people, but actually show more genital arousal than other people
c. report that they are as tolerant of the films as other people, but actually show less genital arousal than other people
d. report that they are as tolerant of the films as other people, and also show more genital arousal than other people

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Emotional Arousal    TYPE: Factual

 

  1. Is the physiological arousal that people have when they are emotional actually the same for all emotions? Current research suggests that ____.
a. there is indeed just one basic form of arousal, though it has degrees of intensity
b. there are at least two basic arousal states—one pleasant and the other unpleasant
c. there are approximately seven basic forms of arousal, which match up to the seven basic emotions that have been identified
d. there are in fact many (a seemingly infinite number of) distinct forms of arousal

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Emotional Arousal    TYPE: Conceptual

 

  1. How many basic arousal states are there?
a. one
b. two
c. three
d. four

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Emotional Arousal    TYPE: Factual

 

  1. The basic arousal states are ____.
a. aroused, relaxed, and ready
b. sleep and wakefulness
c. anger, joy, contentment, and pain
d. pleasant and unpleasant

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Emotional Arousal    TYPE: Factual

NOTE: New

  1. Research suggests that neutral forms of arousal (e.g., arousal induced by caffeine) can generally be converted—via misattribution—into ____.
a. negative emotions but not positive emotions.
b. positive emotions but not negative emotions.
c. either positive emotions or negative emotions.
d. other neutral states only (e.g., excitement)—and not positive or negative emotions.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Emotional Arousal    TYPE: Conceptual

 

  1. Suppose that you are feeling a positive emotion such as “relief” (e.g., you thought your wallet had been stolen, but realized it wasn’t) or “joy” (e.g., you just heard that your older sister had a baby). Would it be possible for that emotion to be converted into another emotion via excitation transfer?
a. No, once a full-blown emotion has “registered,” it cannot be converted into another emotion.
b. Yes, although typically (once a positive emotion has already been “registered”) it could only be converted into another positive emotion.
c. Yes, although typically (once a positive emotion has already been “registered”) it could only be converted into a negative emotion.
d. Yes, it could be converted into another positive emotion or (just as easily) into a negative emotion.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Emotional Arousal    TYPE: Conceptual

 

  1. The term “affect balance” refers to ____.
a. the degree to which a person’s affects are stable, or consistent, across time.
b. the degree to which a person’s affects are stable, or consistent, across situations.
c. the frequency of one’s positive emotions minus the frequency of one’s negative emotions.
d. the average level of (positive) emotion experienced by a group or society.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Some Important Emotions    TYPE: Factual

 

  1. Someone might be a happy person because he enjoys many positive emotional experiences, or because she hardly ever feels bad emotions. What do social psychologists use to measure this level of happiness?
a. emotional intelligence (EQ)
b. affect balance
c. positive emotion index (PEI)
d. life satisfaction

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Some Important Emotions    TYPE: Factual

NOTE: New

 

  1. The most complex form of happiness is ____.
a. emotional intelligence (EQ)
b. affect balance
c. positive emotion index (PEI)
d. life satisfaction

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Some Important Emotions    TYPE: Conceptual

 

 

  1. Research on happiness and parenting indicates that couples who have children are ____ than couples who do not have children, although ____.
a. happier; this finding is not consistent
b. happier; people expect that having children will make them less happy
c. less happy; this finding is not consistent
d. less happy; people expect that having children will make them happier

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Some Important Emotions    TYPE: Factual

 

  1. Which statement is most accurate regarding the happiness levels of parents?
a. Having children increases happiness in parents.
b. Having children makes life richer and more meaningful.
c. Having children has resulted in reduced happiness levels in parents throughout history.
d. Having children decreases the belief that one will be happier as a parent, but in fact, happiness levels do increase.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Some Important Emotions    TYPE: Factual

NOTE: NEW

 

  1. What role does culture play in parenting and happiness?
a. Most cultures are more concerned with the happiness of parents than the survival of their children.
b. Most cultures help promote the idea (even when false) that havingchildren will make you happy.
c. All successful cultures encourage birth control and deliberate processing before having children.
d. Very few cultures glorify parenthood; instead, most tend to disapprove of those who reproduce.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Some Important Emotions    TYPE: Factual

NOTE: New

 

  1. Research on happiness and parenting indicates that couples who have children are _____ than couples who do not have children, although _____.
a. happier, this finding is not consistent.
b. happier, this may be a modern phenomenon.
c. less happy, this finding is not consistent.
d. less happy, this may be a modern phenomenon.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Some Important Emotions    TYPE: Factual

 

  1. Research on marriage, parenting, and happiness suggests that one of the happiest times in people’s lives, especially for women, is the ____.
a. interval between the day one is engaged and the day one is married
b. interval between the day one is married and the day one’s first child is born
c. first year after one’s first child is born
d. first year after one’s children have grown up and left the parents’ house

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Some Important Emotions    TYPE: Factual

 

 

  1. The factor that appears to be most strongly related to happiness is ____.
a. one’s physical health or well-being
b. whether one is alone in the world or has social connections
c. the economic condition of one’s country or society
d. one’s own economic condition

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Some Important Emotions    TYPE: Factual

 

  1. The idea that people maintain relatively constant levels of happiness or unhappiness—regardless of what happens to them—has been referred to as ____.
a. the hedonic treadmill
b. the broaden-and-build theory
c. emotional intelligence (EQ)
d. personal affective index

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Some Important Emotions    TYPE: Factual

 

  1. Lottery winners are no happier than anyone else a year after their big win. Similarly, people who have experienced serious physical injuries seem to “get over it” fairly well across time and return to their pre-injury level of happiness. These findings are consistent with research on ____.
a. the hedonic treadmill
b. the broaden-and-build theory
c. emotional intelligence (EQ)
d. personal affective indices

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Some Important Emotions    TYPE: Applied

 

  1. Research on the so-called “hedonic treadmill” would predict that people who have received life sentences to prison would ____.
a. tend to show more excitation transfer of emotions as time went on
b. tend to avoid affective forecasting
c. become more and more devastated by their sentencing as time went on
d. be devastated by their sentencing, but return to nearly pre-prison levels of happiness within a few years

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Some Important Emotions    TYPE: Applied

 

  1. Research on the so-called “hedonic treadmill” has shown that both state lottery winners and paralysis victims ____, although paralysis victims ____.
a. “get over it” and return to preexisting levels of happiness more quickly than might be expected; do not recover as quickly
b. “get over it” and return to preexisting levels of happiness more quickly than might be expected; actually recover even more quickly
c. take longer to “get over it” and return to preexisting levels of happiness than might be expected; take an especially long time to recover
d. take longer to “get over it” and return to preexisting levels of happiness than might be expected; actually recover more quickly

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Some Important Emotions    TYPE: Applied

 

 

  1. Of the factors listed below, the strongest predictor of a person’s happiness is ____.
a. one’s income (relative to the average income for his/her demographic)
b. the number of blood relatives with whom a person regularly communicates
c. one’s level of physical health
d. how happy the person was 10 years earlier

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Some Important Emotions    TYPE: Factual

 

  1. Research on the objective and subjective predictors of happiness indicates that ____ has only a weak relationship to happiness, but ____ is a strong predictor of happiness.
a. how often you get sick; how often people around you get sick
b. how often you get sick; how satisfied you are with your health
c. how often people around you get sick; how often you get sick
d. how satisfied you are with your health; how often you get sick

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Some Important Emotions    TYPE: Applied

 

  1. Overall happiness tends to ____.
a. be most dependent on objective factors
b. remain the same over time
c. be governed largely by our circumstances
d. vary widely during the course of one’s lifetime

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Some Important Emotions    TYPE: Factual

NOTE: New

 

  1. Research on “positive psychology” indicates that you may be able to increase your overall level of happiness if you sit down once or twice a week and make a list of ____.
a. all the good things that have happened to you
b. all the ways that you are better than other people
c. all the bad things that have happened to other people
d. all the good things you have done for other people

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Some Important Emotions    TYPE: Applied

 

  1. As discussed in the text, one study conducted in 2001 examined short biographies that were written by nuns in 1930. The study found that the nuns who ____ in the biographies had lived about 10 years longer than the nuns who didn’t.
a. focused on their adult lives rather than their childhoods
b. expressed high commitment to being a nun
c. focused on other people (rather than themselves)
d. expressed high positive emotions

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Some Important Emotions    TYPE: Applied

 

 

  1. Research on the link between happiness and health demonstrates that ____.
a. there is actually a weak link here, and it is not clear what causes what
b. there is actually a weak link here, though it appears that health drives happiness (rather than happiness driving health)
c. there is a strong link here, although it is not clear what causes what
d. there is a strong link here, and it appears that health drives happiness (rather than happiness driving health)

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Some Important Emotions    TYPE: Conceptual

 

  1. Scores on the AIM instrument tell us ____.
a. how precise an emotional experience is for a person
b. the source of emotional experience in individuals
c. how intense an emotional experience is for a person
d. the relative balance of good versus bad emotion in a person’s life

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Some Important Emotions    TYPE: Factual

 

  1. Which of the following items would be most likely to be found on the AIM instrument?
a. When I am nervous, I get shaky all over.
b. I feel guilty sometimes.
c. I feel happier when I smile.
d. I am generally satisfied with my life.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Some Important Emotions    TYPE: Conceptual

 

  1. The following people have scored high on the AIM. Taking this score into account, which one would most likely have the highest quality of life?
a. Jody, who has a relatively “easy” life with lots of good experiences
b. Jim, who has a relatively “difficult” life with lots of stressors
c. Janna, whose life is a balance between good and bad experiences
d. Jarboe, who is low on life satisfaction

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Some Important Emotions    TYPE: Applied

 

  1. As discussed in the text, the emotion of anger can best be classified as ____.
a. pleasant and high in arousal
b. pleasant and low in arousal
c. unpleasant and high in arousal
d. unpleasant and low in arousal

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Some Important Emotions    TYPE: Conceptual

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of a low arousal and pleasant emotion?
a. Frustration
b. Tiredness
c. Relaxation
d. Astonishment

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Some Important Emotions    TYPE: Conceptual

 

 

  1. Compared to people who are sad or afraid, people who are happy or angry tend to ____.
a. take fewer risks
b. be more confident and optimistic
c. be less likely to take a stand for what they believe in
d. be better able to concentrate on information that is presented to them

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Some Important Emotions    TYPE: Conceptual

 

  1. An angry person is not likely to ___.
a. take more risks
b. feel more optimistic
c. take a stand for what they believe in
d. review information more thoroughly before acting on it

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Some Important Emotions    TYPE: Factual

 

  1. In what way is anger different from contempt?
a. Anger is a more pleasant state of arousal.
b. Contempt is a more pleasant state of arousal.
c. Anger tends to motivate more approach behavior with attempts to create change.
d. Contempt tends to motivate more approach behavior with attempts to create change.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Some Important Emotions    TYPE: Conceptual

 

  1. Martin is a very powerful company president. When he conducts a meeting, if he so much as frowns, the other people in the room behave so as to stop the potential conflict they see coming based on that frown. This reaction to Martin’s anger illustrates the_____aspect of anger.
a. action-motivating
b. conflict-defusing
c. impulsive
d. aggressive

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Some Important Emotions    TYPE: Applied

 

  1. Routinely repressing, or seeking to conceal, feelings of anger is MOST associated with an increased risk of ____.
a. suicide
b. heart disease
c. depression
d. anxiety disorders

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Some Important Emotions    TYPE: Factual

 

  1. According to catharsis theory, ____.
a. expressing negative emotions produces a healthy release and is therefore good for the psyche
b. practicing emotional restraint of negative emotions (i.e., holding in negative emotions) can help to dissipate, or reduce, such emotions across time
c. ironically, people tend to feel unpleasant emotions when they have survived a negative experience when others have suffered
d. emotions tend to promote interpersonal ties

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Some Important Emotions    TYPE: Conceptual

  1. Research on repressing versus venting anger shows that ____.
a. neither of these actions are associated with heart disease
b. repressing anger is associated with heart disease, while venting anger is not
c. venting anger is associated with heart disease, while repressing anger is not
d. both of these actions are associated with heart disease

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Some Important Emotions    TYPE: Conceptual

 

  1. Rojit is extremely frustrated with his boss, Tony, who has asked him to work over the weekend to complete a big project. Rojit deals with his frustration by sneaking into the departmental lounge and surreptitiously stabbing a Voodoo doll that he has made of Tony. He then returns to his desk. According to research, will this help Rojit relieve his anger?
a. Yes—it should help a little bit no matter what.
b. Yes—although it will only help if Rojit believes it will help.
c. No—it will probably have no impact at all on Rojit’s anger.
d. No—in fact, it will probably make Rojit even angrier.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Some Important Emotions    TYPE: Applied

 

  1. Suppose that Natalie and her boyfriend just got into a huge argument, and Natalie went to the gym and punched a punching bag (imagining the whole time that the punching bag was her boyfriend), hoping to “let off some steam.” How much will this approach help?
a. It will only help to reduce her anger if she really believes in the value of venting and catharsis.
b. It will only help to reduce her anger if she enjoys the venting and gets some satisfaction from it.
c. It will only help to reduce her anger if she really believes in the value of venting and catharsis AND if she enjoys the venting and gets some satisfaction from it.
d. It will not help to reduce her anger regardless of whether she believes in the value of venting and catharsis AND regardless of whether she enjoys the venting and gets some satisfaction from it.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Some Important Emotions    TYPE: Applied

 

  1. Research on the value of venting anger and catharsis suggests that ____.
a. counter to most people’s intuition, venting anger almost always ends up making people angrier than they were before
b. venting anger only works to reduce anger when people believe in the value of venting
c. venting only works to reduce anger when people enjoy and get satisfaction out of the venting
d. venting anger only works to reduce anger when people believe in the value of venting AND enjoy and get satisfaction out of the venting

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Some Important Emotions    TYPE: Factual

 

 

  1. There are three major ways that people deal with anger: They repress it (e.g., by denying their anger), they vent it (e.g., by yelling at someone), or they try to get rid of it (e.g., by relaxing or going for a jog). Which approach is generally most successful at reducing anger?
a. Venting
b. Repressing—although there are long-term costs
c. Getting rid of it
d. Whichever approach the person believes will be most successful

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Some Important Emotions    TYPE: Factual

 

  1. While guilt might say, ____, shame would say, ____.
a. “I did a bad thing”, “I am a bad person”
b. “I am a bad person”, “I did a bad thing”
c. “I hate myself”, “other people hate me”
d. “other people hate me”, “I hate myself”

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Some Important Emotions    TYPE: Conceptual

 

  1. Research on the emotions of guilt and shame suggests that, while guilt is usually ____ shame is usually ____.
a. automatic; conscious
b. conscious; automatic
c. constructive; destructive
d. destructive; constructive

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Some Important Emotions    TYPE: Factual

 

  1. Research suggests that when people feel guilt, they usually ____.
a. apologize or seek to make amends
b. withdraw from others or lash out in anger
c. try to repress or avoid the emotion
d. seek to change their social situation or circumstances

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Some Important Emotions    TYPE: Factual

 

  1. Which of the following emotions is most associated with seeking to do good acts, such as apologizing?
a. Shame
b. Guilt
c. Humiliation
d. Anger

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Some Important Emotions

TYPE: Factual | Conceptual

 

  1. Research on guilt indicates that people mainly feel guilt about ____.
a. things they have done to themselves
b. things they have done to people with whom they are close
c. things they have done to acquaintances or strangers
d. things people have done to them

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Some Important Emotions    TYPE: Conceptual

 

  1. When a person feels badly because he or she has survived a situation that has caused much suffering to others, then the person is said to be feeling ____.
a. schadenfreude
b. survivor guilt
c. shame
d. catharsis

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Some Important Emotions    TYPE: Factual

 

  1. Joe’s entire neighborhood was hit by a forest fire last year. While nearly all of the houses in the neighborhood were burnt to a crisp, Joe’s house was miraculously spared and left fully intact. If Joe was like most people, he would nonetheless feel very badly that he came out of the fire alright while others suffered so much. That is, he would be feeling a form of ____.
a. schadenfreude
b. survivor guilt
c. shame
d. catharsis

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Some Important Emotions    TYPE: Applied

 

  1. During economic recessions, when large corporations must lay off many workers, those who retain their jobs sometimes feel ____. They think: “That’s not really fair. I don’t necessarily deserve to keep my job when so many other great workers are now unemployed. I shouldn’t really still be here either…”
a. schadenfreude
b. survivor guilt
c. shame
d. catharsis

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Some Important Emotions    TYPE: Applied

 

  1. According to the text, emotions tend—on the whole—to ____.
a. promote strong interpersonal relationships
b. have a detrimental impact on interpersonal relationships
c. “test” relationships, so that only the most committed relationships last
d. be helpful in promoting communication within close relationships, but be detrimental to formal relationships and acquaintanceships (e.g., work relationships)

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Some Important Emotions    TYPE: Conceptual

 

  1. The essence of most guilt-inducing strategies is ____.
a. “I am in the right here, can’t you see that?”
b. “See how you are hurting me?”
c. “You are a bad person.”
d. “I understand how you feel.”

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Some Important Emotions    TYPE: Applied

 

 

  1. Washing one’s hands is thought to most influence which of the following emotions?
a. Contempt
b. Sadness
c. Guilt
d. Anger

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Some Important Emotions    TYPE: Factual

NOTE: New

 

  1. Anger is to ____ as disgust is to ____.
a. approach; avoid
b. avoid; approach
c. guilt; shame
d. happy; joy

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Some Important Emotions    TYPE: Conceptual

NOTE: New

 

  1. Rozin’s research in which he presented apple juice that had been contaminated with a dead cockroach (although the roach was removed) to children and adults reveals that ____.
a. disgust is an innate emotion with little learning required
b. disgust is at least partially a learned emotion
c. disgust is innate for females, but learned for males
d. disgust is innate for males, but learned for females

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Some Important Emotions    TYPE: Factual

NOTE: New

 

  1. Who is likely to have the strongest disgust reactions?
a. James, a 35-year-old man
b. Susan, a 35-year-old woman
c. Leah, a 3-year-old girl
d. Max, a 3-year-old boy

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Some Important Emotions    TYPE: Applied

NOTE: New

 

  1. Disgust has been shown to promote handwashing, avoidance of sex with risky partners, and other health-promoting behaviors. As such, disgust has been called our ___.
a. behavioral immune system
b. physiological immune system
c. catharsis mechanism
d. affect regulation system

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Some Important Emotions    TYPE: Conceptual

NOTE: New

 

 

  1. Judgments about the moral virtue of ____ are most associated with the emotion of disgust.
a. purity
b. fairness
c. kindness
d. love

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Some Important Emotions    TYPE: Conceptual

NOTE: New

 

  1. Positive emotions tend to be associated with ____.
a. challenging life events
b. low emotional intelligence
c. forming a social bond with someone else
d. breaking a social bond with someone else

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Why Do We Have Emotions?             TYPE: Conceptual

 

  1. One of the best things to do if you want to feel good and avoid emotional distress is to ____.
a. form and maintain good social relationships with others
b. limit your social contact with others
c. have high affective intensity
d. have low affective intensity

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Why Do We Have Emotions?             TYPE: Conceptual

 

  1. For which group(s) is there a strong association between overeating and being in a bad mood?
a. Only adults with binge eating disorders
b. Both adults with binge eating disorders and adults who binge eat (but not those with clinical disorders)
c. Only adults who binge eat (but not those with clinical disorders)
d. Adults with binge eating disorders, adults who binge eat (but do not have clinical disorders), and adults who do not binge eat

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Why Do We Have Emotions?                      TYPE: Factual

 

  1. Research shows that there is often a strong association between feeling negative emotions and overeating. However, this association does NOT occur ____.
a. among people with binge eating disorders
b. among people who regularly binge eat (regardless of whether or not people have a binge eating disorder)
c. unless people are overweight or obese
d. unless people believe that eating will make them feel better

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Why Do We Have Emotions?                      TYPE: Factual

 

  1. According to the text, emotions do all of the following on a consistent basis EXCEPT ____.
a. increase helping behavior
b. help people learn from their mistakes
c. influence thinking and actions
d. promote communication

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Why Do We Have Emotions?                      TYPE: Factual

  1. What theme is supported by the fact that children learn to conceal their emotions as they grow up?
a. “The bad is greater than the good.”
b. “There are always tradeoffs.”
c. “Nature says go, culture says stop.”
d. “Inner processes serve interpersonal relations.”

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Why Do We Have Emotions?             TYPE: Conceptual

 

  1. Bechara et al. (1997) conducted a study in which they allowed participants to draw from various decks of cards. For some decks, the cards generally signaled a “win” of a small amount of money. Other decks dealt with larger amounts but you could win or lose money. In this study, the people who lacked emotion tended to ____.
a. choose only from the decks with larger sums
b. choose only from the decks with small wins
c. go back to the same deck over and over
d. behave similarly to those who were capable of emotion

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Why Do We Have Emotions?             TYPE: Conceptual

 

  1. Which of the following statements about emotions and learning is most accurate?
a. Emotions are not rational and impede the learning process.
b. Emotions distract one from engaging in analysis.
c. Emotions focus your attention on the wrong features of the learning situation.
d. Emotions provide feedback that helps you learn from your mistakes.

 

Social Psychology and Human Nature Comprehensive Edition Paper.

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Why Do We Have Emotions?             TYPE: Conceptual

 

  1. According to the ____ hypothesis, people tend to evaluate things as good or bad in part by asking themselves: “How do I feel about it?”
a. affective forecasting
b. affect balance
c. affect-as-information
d. emotional intelligence (EQ)

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Why Do We Have Emotions?             TYPE: Conceptual

 

  1. Suppose that you get a creepy feeling every time you ride the bus at night. Even if you have never heard about anything scary happening on the bus at night, you might end up using this feeling to form a judgment that riding the bus at night is a bad thing. Forming a judgment in such a way would be consistent with ____.
a. the idea of affective forecasting
b. the idea of affect balance
c. the affect-as-information hypothesis
d. having high emotional intelligence (EQ)

Social Psychology and Human Nature Comprehensive Edition Paper.

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Why Do We Have Emotions?                      TYPE: Applied

 

 

  1. Even though Amanda just met Diego two minutes ago, she has a good feeling about him right off the bat. According to the ____ hypothesis, it is therefore likely that Amanda will also decide within minutes that Diego is a good person.
a. affective forecasting
b. affect balance
c. affect-as-information
d. emotional intelligence (EQ)

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Why Do We Have Emotions?                      TYPE: Applied

 

  1. What term is concerned with people’s ability to predict their emotional reactions to future events?
a. emotional intelligence (EQ)
b. affective forecasting
c. affect-as-information
d. hedonic treadmill

Social Psychology and Human Nature Comprehensive Edition Paper.

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Why Do We Have Emotions?                      TYPE: Factual

 

  1. Which of the following statements is an example of a person engaging in affective forecasting?
a. “The reason that he dropped out of school was because he felt insecure and incompetent.”
b. “If he ever betrayed me, I would be so depressed I would never recover.”
c. “If I hadn’t gotten reprimanded by my boss that one time, I never would have hated my job as much as I did.”
d. “If I had only trusted him and not said anything, we wouldn’t have gotten into that stupid argument.”

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Why Do We Have Emotions?                      TYPE: Applied

 

  1. Research on affective forecasting suggests that, when people are asked to predict how they would feel if they lost their jobs, they ____.
a. are fairly accurate at predicting both how they will feel and how long they will feel that way
b. are fairly accurate at predicting how they will feel, but tend to overestimate how long they will feel that way
c. are fairly accurate at predicting how they will feel, but tend to underestimate how long they will feel that way
d. are not very accurate at predicting how they will feel or how long they will feel that way

 

Social Psychology and Human Nature Comprehensive Edition Paper.

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Why Do We Have Emotions?                      TYPE: Applied

 

  1. When asked to predict their emotional reaction to being paralyzed in a car accident, most people know that they would be upset, but tend to overestimate for how long they would be upset. Research suggests that this error may occur because ____.
a. when imagining this, people focus too much attention on the possible paralysis, and do not consider other (happy) events that will happen in their lives
b. bad is stronger than good
c. of the affect-as-information effect
d. people do not take catharsis into account

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Why Do We Have Emotions?             TYPE: Conceptual

 

  1. When people are asked to predict how they would feel if a certain event occurred, they are ____ at predicting which emotion they would feel. Research additionally shows that people are ____ at predicting how long they would be emotionally affected.
a. usually inaccurate; usually inaccurate
b. usually inaccurate nevertheless fairly accurate
c. fairly accurate; also fairly accurate
d. fairly accurate; nevertheless rather inaccurate

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Why Do We Have Emotions?                      TYPE: Factual

 

  1. The emotion of disgust is most likely to make you willing to ____.
a. pay more for an object
b. pay less for an object
c. lower a selling price for an object
d. pay less for an object, and also sell an object for less as well

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Why Do We Have Emotions?             TYPE: Conceptual

 

  1. Sadness is likely to ____.
a. make one have a lower selling price for an object
b. make one have a higher selling price for an object
c. decrease what one is willing to pay for an object
d. both make one have a higher selling price and willing to pay more to purchase an object

 

Social Psychology and Human Nature Comprehensive Edition Paper.

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Why Do We Have Emotions?             TYPE: Conceptual

 

  1. Lerner, Small, and Loewenstein (2004) conducted a study on ____.
a. emotions caused by the consequences of financial decisions in the study
b. emotions leftover from a previous event
c. happiness and sadness
d. guilt and shame

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Why Do We Have Emotions?                      TYPE: Factual

 

  1. Which of the following emotions has been referred to as “the shadow of intelligence”?
a. Fear
b. Guilt
c. Anxiety
d. Anger

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Why Do We Have Emotions?             TYPE: Conceptual

 

  1. What is most accurate about the emotion of anxiety?
a. Anxiety is highly correlated with IQ.
b. Humans are the only animals who experience anxiety.
c. Anxiety motivates people to plan ahead and avoid risks.
d. Anxiety tends to interfere with smart, healthy decision-making.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Why Do We Have Emotions?             TYPE: Conceptual

 

 

  1. The risk-as-feelings hypothesis states that ____.
a. people rely on emotions to evaluate risk
b. people tend to disregard emotions (more than they should) when evaluating risk
c. risky situations are more emotion-arousing than non-risky situations
d. most people experience a distinct positive emotion (in addition to any negative emotions like fear) when engaging in risky behavior

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Why Do We Have Emotions?                      TYPE: Factual

 

  1. The risk-as-feelings hypothesis suggests that ____.
a. when evaluating risk, people tend to focus on the safe features of a situation (rather than the unsafe features)
b. when evaluating risk, people completely disregard the probabilities of safe or unsafe outcomes actually occurring
c. people’s judgments about risk are overly conscious (with not enough attention paid to automatic assessments)
d. people’s judgments about risk are overly emotional (with undue attention paid to gut reactions)

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Why Do We Have Emotions?             TYPE: Conceptual

 

  1. Suppose that it is Friday night, that Xavier and her friends have been out at a party, and that they are now heading home. Suppose also that Xavier has had a little bit to drink, but not a lot. Is it safe for her to drive home or should she call a cab instead? How will she decide what to do? According to the risk-as-feelings hypothesis, ____. Social Psychology and Human Nature Comprehensive Edition Paper.
a. her current mood will influence her assessment of risk (e.g., if she is in a relatively good mood, she will see relatively little danger in driving)
b. she will consult her friends and see what their feelings are about the issue
c. she will consider the worst possible scenario, and then simply make a decision based on her gut
d. she will recall the last time that she was in this situation, what she did, and how she felt about it. She will then let that recollection guide her decision

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Why Do We Have Emotions?                      TYPE: Applied

 

  1. Broadly speaking, in considering the link between emotions and decision-making, it appears that anticipated emotions tend to ____ decision-making, while current emotional states tend to ____ decision-making.
a. guide and improve; guide and improve
b. guide and improve; have little impact on
c. guide and improve; bias and hurt
d. bias and hurt; guide and improve

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Why Do We Have Emotions?             TYPE: Conceptual

 

  1. Compared to negative emotions, there are ____.
a. fewer positive emotions, but they are more differentiated
b. fewer positive emotions, and they are relatively undifferentiated
c. more positive emotions, and they are more differentiated
d. more positive emotions, but they are less differentiated

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Why Do We Have Emotions?             TYPE: Conceptual

  1. The broaden-and-build theory is an explanation for ____.
a. how emotions guide learning and decision-making
b. the function of positive emotions
c. how we learn to identify emotions
d. how anger and aggression can be socially adaptive

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Why Do We Have Emotions?                      TYPE: Factual

 

  1. One theory suggests that positive emotions function to buffer people against future “hard times” by expanding people’s current attention and mind-set (e.g., making them relatively creative, exploratory, and adventurous). This theory is known as ____.
a. the broaden-and-build theory
b. the hedonic treadmill theory
c. the affect-as-information hypothesis
d. excitation transfer

 

Social Psychology and Human Nature Comprehensive Edition Paper.

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Why Do We Have Emotions?                      TYPE: Factual

 

  1. David has been in a joyful mood all month. According to the broaden-and-build hypothesis of positive emotions, ____.
a. David will try to “spread” his good mood around to others
b. David’s mindset will be “expanded” (such that he has the urge to play, push limits, and so forth)
c. David will attempt to hold on to this joyful feeling as long as he can
d. David will tend to spend more time with people who are also in positive moods (and less time with people who are in negative moods)

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Why Do We Have Emotions?                      TYPE: Applied

 

  1. One study found that physicians who were given candy were faster and more accurate in diagnosing a case study than physicians who weren’t given candy. Additional research suggests that these results can best be explained by the idea that ____.
a. sugar (temporarily) enhances problem-solving ability
b. being in a good mood enhances problem-solving ability
c. arousal (whether positive or negative) enhances problem-solving ability
d. being given incentives enhances problem-solving ability

 

Social Psychology and Human Nature Comprehensive Edition Paper.

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Why Do We Have Emotions?                      TYPE: Applied

 

  1. How do positive emotions impact problem-solving? Research suggests that being in a good mood ____.
a. improves cognitive flexibility and creativity, but does not necessarily improve problem-solving ability
b. improves persistence, but does not necessarily improve problem-solving ability
c. improves cognitive flexibility and creativity, as well as persistence, but does not necessarily improve problem-solving ability
d. improves cognitive flexibility and creativity, persistence, and problem-solving ability

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Why Do We Have Emotions?                      TYPE: Factual

 

 

  1. Researcher Paul Ekman and his colleagues have suggested that there are six basic emotions. Which of the following is NOT one of these?
a. Disgust
b. Jealousy
c. Surprise
d. Sadness

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Group Differences in Emotion         TYPE: Factual

 

  1. Compared to white Americans, Asian Americans tend to ____.
a. be less emotional in general (i.e., show more emotional moderation)
b. be more emotional in general (i.e., show less emotional moderation)
c. show several distinct emotions that white Americans completely lack
d. completely lack several distinct emotions that white Americans show

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Group Differences in Emotion         TYPE: Factual

 

  1. A Duchenne smile is best described as a(n) ____.
a. fake smile
b. genuine smile
c. evil smile
d. bitter smile

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Group Differences in Emotion         TYPE: Factual

 

  1. In which of the following situations would you be most likely to have a Duchenne smile on your face?
a. You have just learned that your enemy has been fired from his job. You are in public, among colleagues, so you have to pretend to feel bad for him (but secretly you are gleeful inside).
b. Your enemy just got a big promotion at work. You have to pretend to be happy for him, but you are secretly annoyed and jealous of his success.
c. You see your enemy on the street. You give him a quick fake smile—more of a sneer—just to show him that he is still your enemy.
d. You have just won an award and feel jubilant (especially because your enemy was not the winner).

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Group Differences in Emotion         TYPE: Applied

 

  1. Paul Ekman’s cross-cultural research on emotion and facial expressions has been criticized on the grounds that ____.
a. it has examined only four different emotions; and there may well be cross-cultural differences in terms of other emotions (that Ekman has not studied).
b. it has examined only nine cultures; and there may well be significant differences in how emotion is experienced and expressed in other cultures.
c. it is based on posed photographs; these poses may not correspond well with actual experiences and expressions of emotion.
d. it is based on individualistic cultures only, and there is reason to believe that people in collectivistic cultures would experience and express emotion differently.

 

Social Psychology and Human Nature Comprehensive Edition Paper.

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Group Differences in Emotion         TYPE: Factual

 

  1. Asian Americans differ from European Americans in emotional expression in ____.
a. most ways
b. no way
c. that they show fewer Duchenne smiles
d. that they show fewer non-Duchenne smiles

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Group Differences in Emotion         TYPE: Factual

 

  1. Which of the following statements summarizes Russell’s position on Ekman’s research on facial expression cross-culturally?
a. He supports the facial expression-emotion link Ekman has found.
b. He wholly rejects Ekman’s findings.
c. He argues with Ekman’s methodology, feeling still faces would be better to study than faces with spontaneous emotions.
d. He argues with Ekman’s methodology, feeling photos of faces with spontaneous emotions would be better to study than still faces.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Group Differences in Emotion

TYPE: Conceptual

 

  1. Research on gender differences in emotions has found that ____.
a. women tend to experience more positive emotions than men
b. women tend to experience emotions more strongly than men
c. women tend to experience emotions more frequently than men
d. there are almost no gender differences in terms of strength, frequency, or valence of emotional experiences

Social Psychology and Human Nature Comprehensive Edition Paper.

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Group Differences in Emotion         TYPE: Factual

 

  1. A good deal of research has examined whether men and women differ in terms of the strength of their emotional reactions. What has this research found?
a. In beeper studies, women report slightly stronger emotional reactions than men, but on physiological measures, there are essentially no gender differences.
b. In beeper studies there are almost no gender differences, but on physiological measures, women show slightly stronger emotional reactions.
c. In beeper studies and on physiological measures, women show slightly stronger emotional reactions than men.
d. There are essentially no gender differences either in beeper studies or on physiological measures.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Group Differences in Emotion         TYPE: Factual

 

  1. Research on gender differences in emotion suggests that _____ may be slightly more emotional, and _____ may be relatively more willing to report and discuss their feelings.
a. men; men
b. men; women
c. women; men
d. women; women

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Group Differences in Emotion         TYPE: Factual

 

  1. Research on gender differences in the experience of love suggests that, compared to women, men ____.
a. fall in love relatively quickly, but also fall out of love relatively quickly
b. fall in love relatively quickly, and fall out of love relatively slowly
c. fall in love relatively slowly, and fall out of love relatively quickly
d. fall in love relatively slowly, but also fall out of love relatively slowly

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Group Differences in Emotion         TYPE: Factual

 

  1. A good deal of research has examined whether men and women differ in terms of how they experience emotions. This research clearly suggests that the stereotype of ____ is incorrect.
a. women as more emotional than men
b. men as more conflict-avoidant than women
c. boys as more fussy than girls
d. men as relatively quick-to-fall-in-love

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Group Differences in Emotion

TYPE: Conceptual

 

  1. Research on gender differences in empathy suggests that _____ in accurately understanding the emotional states of others.
a. women are quite a bit better
b. women are slightly better
c. there are no gender differences
d. men are quite a bit better

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Group Differences in Emotion         TYPE: Factual

 

  1. The Yerkes-Dodson law addresses ____.
a. how emotions fade across time
b. how self-other assessments impact emotional experience
c. how low versus high arousal affects task performance
d. how positive versus negative moods affect judgments

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Arousal, Attention, and Performance

TYPE: Conceptual

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  1. According to the Yerkes-Dodson law, the relationship between arousal and performance can be described by a(n) ____.
a. positive linear function (more arousal leads to better performance)
b. negative linear function (less arousal leads to better performance)
c. positive exponential function (more arousal leads to better and better performance; a lot of arousal leads to tremendously good performance)
d. inverted U-shaped function (more arousal leads to better performance, but only up to a point; too much arousal can hinder performance)

 

Social Psychology and Human Nature Comprehensive Edition Paper.

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Arousal, Attention, and Performance

TYPE: Conceptual

 

 

  1. When people are extremely aroused, their work performance often suffers. Research suggests that this is likely because extremely aroused people ____.
a. are so narrowly focused on the task in front of them that they frequently miss (and fail to make use of) other relevant, useful information
b. are easily distracted by irrelevant stimuli, failing to focus their attention on the most important pieces of the task at hand
c. tend to multitask and rush through jobs—such that they fail to attend to details and make a relatively large number of “careless” errors
d. are overly confident in their capabilities and thus fail to double-check or question their work product

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Arousal, Attention, and Performance

TYPE: Conceptual

 

  1. Extreme stress negatively impacts people’s judgment and performance because it leads people to ____.
a. ignore relevant information
b. do too many things at once
c. act in an individualistic rather than collectivistic manner
d. go into an alternate reality as a coping mechanism

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Arousal, Attention, and Performance

TYPE: Conceptual

 

  1. In recent years, there have been a number of cases where police officers have shot innocent, unarmed citizens. For example, not long ago, an officer of the LAPD shot a thirteen-year-old boy who was driving a car; the officer later stated that he thought the boy was driving the car toward him as a weapon (and he also stated that he did not register certain major facts of the situation that would have convinced him otherwise). While the officer’s behavior is in no way excusable, does his account line up with what we know about how stress affects behavior?
a. No, it doesn’t; stress actually improves people’s ability to take in and process information.
b. No, it doesn’t; stress does not have any net impact (either positive or negative) on people’s ability to take in or process information.
c. Yes, it does; research shows that extreme stress can narrow attention and focus so much that people completely fail to register important and relevant pieces of information.
d. Yes, it does; research shows that extreme stress can broaden attention and focus so much that people end up “taking it all in” but not being able to register the most important, relevant pieces of information.

Social Psychology and Human Nature Comprehensive Edition Paper.

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Arousal, Attention, and Performance           TYPE: Applied

 

  1. According to the textbook, emotional intelligence can be denoted as ____.
a. EIQ
b. EQ
c. EMI
d. EM

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Emotional Intelligence (EI or EQ)    TYPE: Factual

 

 

  1. The concept of emotional intelligence has to do with one’s ability ____.
a. to perceive, access, and understand others’ emotions
b. to perceive, access and generate, understand, and help regulate emotion others’ emotions
c. to perceive, access and generate, understand, and  regulate emotions one’s own emotions
d. to perceive, access and generate, understand, and reflectively regulate one’s own and other’s emotions

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Emotional Intelligence (EI or EQ)

TYPE: Conceptual

 

  1. Daniel Goleman equates ____ with maturity and character.
a. affect balance
b. emotional intelligence
c. positive emotions
d. arousal regulation

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Emotional Intelligence (EI or EQ)    TYPE: Factual

 

  1. Marcus is talking to his sister on the phone. He senses, accurately, that she is feeling pressured and needs to go. Marcus often has experiences where he is able to accurately identify what the other person is feeling. He would probably score high on the ____ branch on a test of emotional intelligence.
a. Perceiving Emotions
b. Managing Emotions
c. Facilitating Thought
d. Understanding Emotions

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Emotional Intelligence (EI or EQ)    TYPE: Applied

 

  1. If you are able to predict future emotions accurately, you probably would score high on the ____ branch of an emotional intelligence test.
a. Perceiving Emotions
b. Facilitating Thought
c. Managing Emotions
d. Understanding Emotions

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Emotional Intelligence (EI or EQ)    TYPE: Applied

 

  1. The notion of emotional intelligence was popularized by the writings of ____.
a. Daniel Goleman
b. David Caruso
c. John Mayer
d. Peter Salovey

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Emotional Intelligence (EI or EQ)    TYPE: Factual

 

  1. People use many strategies to try to regulate affect and stay in a good mood. While the data are very complex, research suggests that one of the most effective strategies is ____.
a. introspection by oneself
b. watching television
c. exercising
d. drinking alcohol

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Affect Regulation                TYPE: Factual

  1. Research suggests that people often seek to cultivate neutral moods (rather than positive or negative moods) when they are about to interact with ____.
a. someone new
b. a close relationship partner
c. a close family member
d. a depressed person

Social Psychology and Human Nature Comprehensive Edition Paper.

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Affect Regulation     TYPE: Factual

 

  1. Compared to men, women are more likely to ____ when feeling depressed.
a. ruminate
b. distract themselves
c. turn to alcohol
d. use humor

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Affect Regulation     TYPE: Factual

 

  1. One explanation for the fact that women have higher rates of depression than men is that, when feeling depressed, women ____.
a. are more likely than men to repeatedly think about the problem—which can make them feel even more depressed
b. are more likely than men to try to distract themselves with other thoughts or activities—which can prevent them from acknowledging and dealing with their depression
c. are less likely than men to seek professional help—such that their depression is often prolonged
d. are more likely than men to turn to alcohol or drugs—which tends to exacerbate existing problems

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Affect Regulation     TYPE: Factual

 

  1. Which of the following statements summarizes your text’s conclusions about affective regulation?
a. It should be used to prevent awareness of negative emotions.
b. It should be used to promote awareness of positive emotions.
c. It should be used to control emotions after you have experienced them, positive or negative.
d. It is not safe to do under any circumstance.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Affect Regulation     TYPE: Conceptual

 

  1. Research indicates that most non-human animals ____.
a. experience only three basic emotions
b. do not experience emotions
c. experience emotions such as fear, rage, joy, and even love
d. experience only two basic emotions

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   What Makes Us Human? Putting the Cultural Animal in Perspective    TYPE: Factual

 

 

  1. Research indicates that MOST non-human animals ____.
a. do not experience any of the same basic emotions that humans do
b. experience only about half of the basic emotions that humans do
c. experience the same basic emotions that humans do, but experience them for much shorter periods of time
d. experience the same basic emotions that humans do, but experience them based on specific, concrete events rather than on collections of events or broader, abstract concepts

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   What Makes Us Human? Putting the Cultural Animal in Perspective    TYPE: Factual

 

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. Compared to affects, emotions tend to be relatively simple and automatic.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   What Is Emotion?     TYPE: Conceptual

 

  1. Men who are high in homophobia tend to exhibit more genital arousal than men who are low in homophobia when watching films of men having sex with one another.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Emotional Arousal    TYPE: Factual

 

  1. The term “affect balance” refers to the degree to which a person’s affects are stable, or consistent, across time.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Some Important Emotions    TYPE: Factual

 

  1. Contrary to what many people think, married couples generally believe (prior to having any children) that having children will make them less happy.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Some Important Emotions    TYPE: Factual

 

  1. How one feels about one’s health (how satisfied one is with one’s health) is a stronger predictor of happiness than is one’s actual level of health.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Some Important Emotions    TYPE: Factual

 

  1. Future artists are more likely to score high on the AIM instrument than future scientists.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Some Important Emotions    TYPE: Factual

 

  1. Research suggests that venting one’s anger is a positive way to reduce anger.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Some Important Emotions    TYPE: Factual

 

  1. Anger tends to lead to rejection and social exclusion of the person at whom you are angry.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Some Important Emotions    TYPE: Conceptual

  1. Positive emotions are linked to forming social bonds and negative emotions are linked to breaking social bonds.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Why Do We Have Emotions?

TYPE: Conceptual

Social Psychology and Human Nature Comprehensive Edition Paper.

  1. Anya is trying to predict how upset she would be if she got into a car accident and her car was completely totaled. Psychologists would say that Anya is engaging in affective forecasting.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Why Do We Have Emotions?                      TYPE: Applied

 

  1. The emotion of disgust tends to make people lower their selling price and lower what they would pay for an object.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Why Do We Have Emotions?

TYPE: Conceptual

 

  1. Research suggest that people are speedier and more accurate at problem-solving when they are in negative moods as opposed to positive moods.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Why Do We Have Emotions                        TYPE: Factual

 

  1. Research indicates that men may actually be innately more emotional (i.e., experience emotions more strongly) as compared to women.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Group Differences in Emotion         TYPE: Factual

 

  1. Sherrill is really good at affective forecasting. She probably will also score high on the Managing Emotions branch of an emotional intelligence measure.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Emotional Intelligence (EI or EQ)    TYPE: Applied

 

  1. It is more or less always the case that affect regulation is aimed at “feeling better right now.”

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Affect Regulation     TYPE: Conceptual

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COMPLETION

 

  1. A feeling state that is not clearly linked to any particular event is known as a(n) ____________________.

 

ANS:  mood

 

DIF:    Moderate        REF:   What Is Emotion?                           TYPE: Factual

 

 

  1. According to the ____________________ theory of emotion, “we feel sorry because we cry, angry because we strike, [and] afraid because we tremble.”

 

ANS:  James-Lange

James Lange

 

DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Emotional Arousal                          TYPE: Conceptual

 

  1. Tim drinks an extra large cappuccino just before leaving work and drives home fully pumped with caffeine. While driving, he gets cut off by another car. Tim becomes extremely angry at the other driver—far angrier than usual. This is because he misinterprets the arousal that he is feeling from the caffeine as anger that he is feeling toward the other driver. That is, he engages in the process of ____________________. Social Psychology and Human Nature Comprehensive Edition Paper.

 

ANS:  excitation transfer

 

DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Emotional Arousal                          TYPE: Applied

 

  1. The term ____________________ is used to refer to the frequency of one’s positive emotions minus the frequency of one’s negative emotions.

 

ANS:  affect balance

 

DIF:    Moderate        REF:   Some Important Emotions              TYPE: Factual

 

  1. The idea that people remain at about the same level of happiness across time—regardless of what happens to them—is known as the ____________________.

 

ANS:  hedonic treadmill

 

DIF:    Moderate        REF:   Some Important Emotions              TYPE: Factual

 

  1. The ability of people to feel varying ranges of intensity in emotional experiences is measured by the____________________.

 

ANS:  AIM

Affect Intensity Measure

 

DIF:    Moderate        REF:   Some Important Emotions              TYPE: Factual

 

  1. Emotions can be sorted, or classified, along two basic dimensions: (1) unpleasant versus pleasant, and (2) ____________________.

 

ANS:  high versus low arousal

 

DIF:    Moderate        REF:   Some Important Emotions              TYPE: Conceptual

 

 

  1. Anger may be important in two evolutionary senses. First, it is action-motivating. Secondly, it is____________________.

 

ANS:  conflict-defusing

conflict defusing

 

DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Some Important Emotions              TYPE: Conceptual

 

  1. Emotions are inner processes that help promote ____________________ relations. Social Psychology and Human Nature Comprehensive Edition Paper.

 

ANS:  interpersonal

 

DIF:    Easy               REF:   Some Important Emotions              TYPE: Conceptual

 

  1. DeeDee is trying to decide if a job offer she has just received is a good or bad offer. I just don’t feel good about it, she thinks. Based on this feeling, DeeDee decides it is a bad offer. DeeDee’s decision process is consistent with the ____________________ hypothesis.

 

ANS:  affect-as-information

affect as information

 

DIF:    Moderate        REF:   Why Do We Have Emotions?         TYPE: Applied          NOTE: New

 

  1. The feeling of ____________________ will lead a person to lower a selling price and increase a payment price.

 

ANS:  sadness

 

DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Why Do We Have Emotions?         TYPE: Conceptual

 

  1. According to the ____________________ law, the relationship between arousal and performance is best described by an inverted U-shaped curve; arousal helps performance up to a point, but too much arousal hurts performance.

 

ANS:  Yerkes-Dodson

Yerkes Dodson

 

DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Arousal, Attention, and Performance                   TYPE: Conceptual

 

  1. The ability to perceive, access and generate, understand, and reflectively regulate emotions is known as ____________________. Social Psychology and Human Nature Comprehensive Edition Paper.

 

ANS:  emotional intelligence

 

DIF:    Moderate        REF:   Emotional Intelligence (EI or EQ)   TYPE: Factual

 

 

  1. The scale to measure the four branches of emotional intelligence is called the ____________________.

 

ANS:  Mayer–Salovey–Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT)

MSCEIT

Mayer–Salovey–Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test

Mayer Salovey Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test

 

DIF:    Moderate        REF:   Emotional Intelligence (EI or EQ)   TYPE: Factual                        NOTE: New

 

  1. Supposed that Natalie has to go to the hospital today to visit her cousin. He has a number of medical problems and has been in a depressed slump for months. Natalie is sort of dreading seeing him. In anticipation of the visit, before leaving the house, Natalie is therefore likely to engage in affect regulation by putting herself in a(n) ____________________ mood.

 

ANS:  positive

good

 

DIF:    Moderate        REF:   Affect Regulation     TYPE: Applied

Social Psychology and Human Nature Comprehensive Edition Paper.

 

ESSAY

 

  1. Explain the difference between the following terms: emotion, mood, and affect. Why do scientists NOT use them interchangeably?

 

ANS:

a. Emotions tend to refer to conscious states that involve an evaluative reaction to something.
b. Moods tend to refer to a feeling, also conscious, that are not linked to a specific reaction to something.
c. Affect refers to the result of mapping all emotions onto a positive versus negative dimension. For example, joy, bliss, pleasure and happiness all are “positive” emotions while depression, sadness, and anger are all “negative” emotions. Affect can be either positive or negative. Positive emotions are good, while negative ones are bad.
d. Although some psychologists do use these three terms interchangeably, one can gain subtle distinctions in the concepts by using the above definitions. For example, emotions are the most specific, as they specify what the feeling is as well as what it is in reaction, too. Moods allow for a feeling that is disassociated from a specific reaction. If you use these terms precisely, it may help define experimental study manipulations with greater precision. Social Psychology and Human Nature Comprehensive Edition Paper.

 

 

DIF:    Easy               REF:   What Is Emotion?                           TYPE: Conceptual

 

 

  1. Briefly compare and contrast the three major theories of how emotion works: the James-Lange theory, the Cannon-Bard theory, and the Schachter-Singer theory (as well as its attendant notion of misattribution of arousal).

 

ANS:

a. All theories concern how the mind’s interpretation corresponds to the body’s (automatic) reaction to a stimulus.
b. James-Lange: Following the emotion-triggering stimulus, the bodily processes associated with emotion come first, and the mind’s perception of these processes then creates the subjective feeling of emotion (“We feel sorry because we cry, angry because we laugh…”)
i. Little empirical support
ii. The body seemed to have a similar response across all emotions
c. Cannon-Bard: Emotion-triggering stimulus activates the thalamus; the thalamus then sends out two messages simultaneously (one to produce the subjective emotional experience and one to produce the physiological response)
d. Schachter-Singer: Emotion has two components: a bodily state of arousal and a cognitive label that identifies the arousal as corresponding to a particular emotion (based on comprehension of situation)
i. Empirically supported
ii. Allows for misattribution of emotion

 

 

DIF:    Moderate        REF:   Emotional Arousal                          TYPE: Conceptual

 

  1. Explain what the objective roots of happiness are based on current research described in your text.

 

ANS:

a. Objective roots of happiness refer to objective features of one’s life that can correlate, or fail to correlate, with life satisfaction.
b. Examples of objective roots of happiness include having enough money, a good marriage, a nice house, a good job, children, good friends and so forth. Success on these features tends to go with success according to biological and cultural standards.
c. The exception to those examples is having children. People with children are generally not as happy as people without children. Parents are often unable to see this, even when faced with objective evidence, because they need to justify the sacrifices they make and because they do not want to see having had the children as a mistake. Having children, however, does increase the level of meaning in one’s life, just not necessarily the level of happiness.
d. The relationship between most objective predictors of happiness and actual reported happiness is relatively weak. The one exception to this is the level of social connections, or friendships. Stronger social connections is strongly related to objective happiness.

 

 

DIF:    Moderate        REF:   Some Important Emotions              TYPE: Conceptual

 

 

  1. While most of the time the emotion of anger appears to be destructive and antisocial, there is a case to be made that anger can be helpful to oneself and others. Explain.

 

ANS:

a. One line of explanation is that anger is adaptive because it motivates people to act aggressively and assertively, thereby eliciting certain behaviors. It helps people to defend themselves and others, to pursue certain (blocked) goals, etc.
b. A second view suggests that anger serves to warn friends and family that aggression is potentially imminent. This gives people a chance to resolve conflicts before they escalate. The expression of anger may therefore (ironically) result in an overall reduction of aggressive behavior.

 

 

DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Some Important Emotions              TYPE: Conceptual

 

  1. How does disgust act as a behavioral immune system?

 

ANS:

a. Disgust produces an avoidance motive. When we see something disgusting, we want to avoid it.
b. In our ancestral history, this helped us to avoid spoiled food, contact with sick people, risky sex partners, and other potentially health-damaging experiences.
c. Disgust may even underlie some modern tendencies toward prejudice. In the past, people living in the same community had likely been exposed to the same diseases. Strangers from other groups could carry new, risky diseases. Disgust with other groups is associated with prejudice in modern intergroup relations.

 

Social Psychology and Human Nature Comprehensive Edition Paper.

DIF:    Moderate        REF:   Some Important Emotions              TYPE: Conceptual     NOTE: New

 

  1. Briefly describe the different ways in which emotions can improve or hinder judgments, decision-making, and performance. When and why are they helpful and when and why are they harmful?

 

ANS:

a. People who lack emotions have great difficulty learning, as well as making judgments and decisions.
b. Emotions promote learning (helping people to learn from their mistakes)
c. Affect-as-information hypotheses: Emotions play an important role in guiding judgments and decision-making.
d. Risk-as-feelings hypothesis: Emotions play an important role in risk assessment, but may lead to biases. Strong conscious emotions can influence people to engage in risky behaviors and ignore future consequences.
e. Anticipated emotions seem to guide sound decision-making; current emotions seem to impair it.
f. Broaden-and-build hypothesis: Positive emotions in particular might put people in a more open, creative, and exploratory mindset, paving the way for intellectual and social growth.
g. Positive emotions in particular also tend to enhance task persistence, cognitive flexibility, and general task performance.

 

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DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Why Do We Have Emotions?         TYPE: Conceptual

 

  1. Are women more emotional than men? Discuss the current research on this topic. In what areas are men and women similar and in what areas are they different? What are the general conclusions from this body of research?

 

ANS:

a. Beeper research has revealed no gender differences in the strength, frequency, or valence of emotional experience—either in terms of emotions in general or in terms of specific emotions.
i. This research has only found slight differences in feelings—e.g., men feeling more competitive and awkward, women feeling more tired.
b. Other research suggests that men experience more anger at work than women do.
c. Research using physiological measures backs up the “essentially no differences” conclusion (with, if anything, men showing stronger emotions than women).
d. Research with small children and infants reveals slightly greater emotionality in males than females.
e. There is also evidence that, compared to women, men tend to fall in love faster, fall out of love slower, and suffer more from romantic breakups.
f. The stereotype of women as relatively emotional appears to be completely wrong.
g. Instead, it appears that, compared to women, men may simply tend to avoid both discussions of feelings and interpersonal conflicts because they are more aroused by them (and because they are expected to be relatively unemotional).

 

 

DIF:    Moderate        REF:   Group Differences in Emotion       TYPE: Conceptual

 

  1. Describe how the arousal associated with emotion influences performance.

 

ANS:

a. The Yerkes-Dodson law describes an inverted U-shaped curve in which very low and very high arousal are associated with poor performance, but moderate arousal is associated with high performance.
b. The reason for this relationship is due to the influence of emotional arousal on attention. When someone is not at all emotionally aroused, they are not paying much attention, and this undermines performance.
c. When someone is extremely emotionally aroused, it becomes hard to focus attention. Again, performance is impaired with poorer attention.
d. At moderate levels of arousal, attention peaks, and consequently performance tends to be enhanced.

 

Social Psychology and Human Nature Comprehensive Edition Paper.

DIF:    Easy               REF:   Arousal, Attention, and Performance                   TYPE: Conceptual

NOTE: New

 

 

  1. Describe the branches, or dimensions, of emotional intelligence.

 

ANS:

a. The first dimension of emotional intelligence is Perceiving Emotions. It involves the ability to recognize how you, and those around you, are feeling, as well as perceiving emotions accurately in objects, art, music, and so forth.
b. The second dimension of emotional intelligence is Facilitating Thought. It involves the ability to generate and emotion and then reason with that feeling.
c. The third dimension of Emotional Intelligence is Understanding Emotions. It is the ability to understand complex emotions and how emotions can transition from one stage to another.
d. The fourth dimension of Emotional Intelligence is Managing Emotions. It involves the ability to be open to feelings, to modulate them in oneself and others so as to promote personal understanding and growth.

 

 

DIF:    Moderate        REF:   Emotional Intelligence (EI or EQ)   TYPE: Conceptual

NOTE: New

 

  1. Discuss the various methods that people use to regulate their emotions. Which of these are relatively effective, and which are relatively ineffective? Do men and women tend to use different strategies? Social Psychology and Human Nature Comprehensive Edition Paper.

 

ANS:

 

a. People often, but not always, seek to get themselves into a good mood.
b. Tactics include:
i. doing things that produce good feelings or distract oneself (eating, having sex, listening to music, watching television, shopping)
ii. arousal control strategies (using relaxation techniques, exercising, drinking coffee, drinking alcohol)
iii. seeking social support
iv. trying to deal with the problem directly (reframing the problem, using humor, venting, praying)
c. Among the most successful tactics are exercising, listening to music, praying, and seeking social support. Among the least successful are watching television and trying to spend time alone.
d. Compared to men, women are more likely to try to regulate emotions by ruminating, seeking social support, eating, or shopping; men are more likely to attempt to try distracting themselves with tasks or chores, drinking, or engaging in sex.

Social Psychology and Human Nature Comprehensive Edition Paper.

 

DIF:    Moderate        REF:   Affect Regulation                           TYPE: Conceptual